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The adaptation of modern art

The adaptation of modern art

Scattered about philosophy and art
If you compare modern painting today with modern painting right 100 years ago , when it just released, then we will find that there are some changes in terms of aesthetic concepts , but on the definition large , it still depends on the same philosophical concepts had contributed to the birth to it , and has continued to influence a decision on it in a century .

Scattered about the philosophical ideas
have influenced art

Van Ngoc

Paul Gauguin , D' ou venons - nous ? Que sommes - nous ? Ou allons - nous ? ( 1897 )

Comparison of animal paintings on the cliff of history , with a similar sketch of a famous painter Renaissance Italy , for example , we see that we are not far from each other on several properties reality , as well as in terms of drawing virtuosity , in short , about their self- worth .

However, behind these works , the two cognitive levels , two different conceptions of art together .

A behind the concept of human primitive wild roses , just to discover the magic of visual language , and the ability to turn a virtual image in the mind of a true image on the cliff by the instinctive dexterity . However, the picture painted animals on rocks , not sure that prehistoric man knew what he wanted to say . Indeed, the later people can not know what thought process led them to the drawings (see Van Ngoc , prehistoric painting ) and not sure what they were aware that it was the creation art , and that is part of yourself.

One behind the other , is the deliberate observation , with a sense of the work done , for the purpose of education and illustration for an event . That sense of a background painting has a language , a structure , with the rules and certain criteria , a background painting in which the artist was fully aware of the role and function her , and to sign up each compositions .

On the other hand , the reported figure , or bull cliff , not in a script at all , while painting the sketch of the Renaissance painters , besides the aesthetic value of it themselves , there are used in a panoramic painting , to tell a story area , or a certain historical events .

For the above example shows , behind a work no script , intentions , purposes , then could not get a concept and this concept art depends on a number of factors : the development of society , the expansion of the human mind , and especially human consciousness about themselves and the world around them .

Artwork and concept art

Above example also shows that , at a certain point of prehistoric art came before the concept art . This is not a common rule , but in art history, this phenomenon has happened many times . Typically , as we will see , the work of art after art idea , or at least , the only work of art when it was ripe for the imagination , or the notion of the artist . Sometimes it was launched in the framework of a project ( the paintings caliber ) , or in the framework of a theory , or an art style .

The prehistoric artists may have had an innate aptitude ( the ability ) to realize its objects painted in a subtle way , but there is absolutely no conception of art basically . From the aesthetic perception aesthetic conception , there is a huge gap . People can Hornbill has been the experience of aesthetic perception , right from the beginning , thanks to the observations available in the beauty of nature . But the notion of drawing style , especially the notion stylized characters , they must long before they do.

Another example : the artist ancient Greeks invented countless sculptures and magnificent architecture , from the early works of art in Delphes and Paestum ( VI - VII centuries tr . S ) to the classical temples and statues in the Acropolis , Athina ( V century p. CN ) , before Plato and Aristotle ( IV century p. S ) to make inferences about the philosophical origins of the first beauty, and the nature of art .

Clearly the work of ancient Greek art has appeared before the first theory of art , at the very core of our philosophy , the concept of " mimic " , or the "copy " disaster course . Indeed , this phenomenon also follow a common logic : one can only draw on the experience did ; may withdraw such experiences , can be progressed . In art , too, without thinking , summarizing , in a work of art , it is impossible to make after work to get better .

Therefore, these people drawn from a work before , maybe is what spawned the concept behind the work . In summary, from the first thoughts of the artist , the work was born, and from which inferences about work , brainstorm new ideas for other works . Anyway , the art can not suddenly come from outside , but not through human wisdom .

The early modern philosophers , from Hegel to Heidegger also recognize that aesthetic ideas can only come after the artwork . However, in practice , the declaration , the theory of art has always been a beacon of light for the artists on his artistic path . Sometimes , we help them to question yourself , for self-renewal .

That 's not to mention the philosophical thought , or religion , have had a decisive influence on the art scene , from the Platonic philosophical ideas about beauty absolute , the transcendental ideas of God Empire , and the classical Aristotelian theory of art , as art is considered a natural reproduction , to the religious thought of Saint Augustine of close ties between man and God all things born ; and from Descartes 's ideas about the role of the subject , to Kant's theory of the subjective nature of beauty , etc.

Classical theory of Aristotle ( IV century tr.CN ) had a lasting impact and most durable on western art . Its reincarnation , the French neo- classical and Europe in the seventeenth century and had a profound influence on the mainstream art for centuries . We can say that here, with the standard theory , its rules , went before , and classical musicians have absolute adherence to these rules in their works .

Long-term effects and persistence of neo- classical Greco-Roman

Art in the West , in more than 25 centuries has profoundly influenced , on the one hand the works of classical Greek art and Roman , one of the ideological aspects of the art of Plato and Aristotle . ( It was not until the 60s of XX century , people still catch the students of Fine Arts School of Architecture and copy the formulas in column Greco- Roman , and Hellenistic statues ! ) . Indeed , look with today 's concept , the ideas of Plato and Aristotle on the art, anti- art ideas , not the ideas of art in honor , but at the time of Plato , philosophers have a great authority in society , and the voices of influential philosophers such as Plato , Aristotle , is to decide , this is especially educators , have full authority and means to spread the that his judgment . In Plato's time , nothing was overtaken philosophy . This , after all, is just the right stop ( if we are aware of the importance of philosophy in life and in the areas of culture , art ) , but Plato's attitude was extreme : based in the opinion that art , from painting to poetry , are only an imitation , or copying nature, and nothing is real at all, so there is no real value , he has an attitude the contempt for the art , and poetry . The strange thing , is the centuries , the West has honored such ideas , only to suffer the negative consequences of them , but much later realize it.

Plato also said that even objects , phenomena in nature and is only copies of the " model " ( transcendental ideas ) created by God . ( Plato , Dialogues / Le Banquet ) .

One other thought of Plato also had a direct influence on the classical notion of art objects . Plato said beauty ( object ) is the source of Appetite place it in humans ( subjects ) . The main beauty of the object , ie the object , has fascinated people looked , and caused Appetite where people look , or where the subject . So , that is : the beauty of the object is real , independent of us and outside us . It is that , 22 centuries later , Kant was negative with work capacity judgments Critique ( 1790 ) . For Kant , beauty is only subjective value and not in the object.

But Aristotle , although they do not agree with the opinion of Plato on , but because he respects his teachers , and for myself is not an artist , so still advocated imitating nature , it is considered to form level , the objective truth ( Aristotle , Poetique ) , such as the human body is a beautiful example of the rate and harmony ( the god Apollon statue , Venus , etc. are classics Greek lexicon , which is the body pattern of human harmony ) .

Over periods and styles in Western art , from the ancient art Greco-Roman , to the first steps of Christian art , and medieval ( with Romang style , gothic ) , to the Cash Renaissance periods , Renaissance, virgin Flamand , Classical , Baroque , Romantic , realistic natural impression , always mainstream art reproduction honor " lifelike " , in the spirit of Aristotle , the original purpose of expressing reality , though with a certain aesthetic look , but absolutely not " interpret " or critical realism .

It is a basic tenet of living art can appreciate that since Aristotle , and has existed to this day durability , at least in a figurative artist . People remember , until the early decades of the twentieth century , academic art , which is the precursor of French classical art , still formally reigns throughout Europe , especially in France .

Christian Art

The ideas of Plato and Aristotle on the relationship between objectivity and subjectivity ( one behind the beauty, or drawing object , a person behind the artist , or enjoy the art ) , as well as imitation , natural or reproduced , broadly , was also taken to Christian art and continue to grow throughout the 20th century , although on some points , especially in the realm of metaphysics , the notion of Christ other teachers have with the concept of the Greek philosophers .

Beauty alone , for Christian concept that all things in this world are beautiful , because by the Trinitarian God created , they reflect the beauty of God's perfection . ( Man is God's creation in the image of God based , although other means with God , but also have enough human qualities and ability to participate in God 's creation , especially light creating beauty ) . This means that , in Christianity , God has been " customized " and therefore beauty is expressed specifically on all the characters , from the Lord Jesus , the blessed Mary , the sacred text , etc. (See the background painting Medieval , Early Renaissance and Renaissance ) . This idea is different from the ideas of Plato . God of Plato rather abstract and distant . Ideal for sheer beauty of Plato , through the transcendental idea of God , is very mysterious results . Perhaps this is also one of the reasons for the influence of neo- classical Greece was overshadowed during the medieval period in Europe , to make room for Christian art . This art flourished , almost continuously for nearly 20 centuries , although the Renaissance , a period of nominal wanted to restore western neo classical Greece and Rome . In fact , never again Christian art to the heights achieved , in terms of painting, as in this period , with the comic masterpiece represents the area , and the characters in the Bible , a clear , bright , and artists to express their own identity diversity such a way .

The thought of St. Augustine , Descartes , and Kant

The first made ​​the argument against Aristotle 's view , as art is just copying nature, is Kant , German philosopher . According to Kant , on the other hand , other works of art with natural products , and the artist should make it clear that the gap in her work . Kant considered works of art is not a copy of nature , but the opposite: " Nature is only beautiful when it's like art , and art is only beautiful when it's like nature" ( Kant , critique of judgment capacity 1790 ) .

What is particularly important is Kant pointed out , and had a tremendous influence on art , which is decisive role of the subject , the subjective nature of beauty : the beauty lies not in the object , whether it is a natural scene , or a work of art , which depends on the judgment of people look at it , that subject .

After Kant , Hegel had more extreme ideas about the relationship between nature and art , and he had a contempt for all that is natural . For him the beauty of the new art worth paying attention to me , because it is a product of the human mind . And the beauty of the natural beauty of the inanimate , and therefore has no value . Perhaps so , but Hegel agreed with Plato on the origins of the beauty ideal , is the transcendental idea of God .

Speaking to the role of the subject , can not fail to go back to St. Augustine , who brought Christianity to give a new dimension : the human dimension . But more importantly , is the philosophical thought of Descartes , with electronic files of the methodology ( 1637 ) . It can be said that with this work , the West has discovered the importance of the subject , of which I , in the perception of the surrounding world , and especially in the concept of art and the artist .

Unknown Rubens (1577-1640) , the celebrated painter Netherlands , had the opportunity to read the works of Descartes yet , but he was the first artist to draw a butterfly flying style and a strong personality completely different style Renaissance painting . It can be said that , on the other hand , at least in form, is a painter Rubens was ahead of all the painters of his time, signaling the birth - more than a century later - the baroque style and romantic style .


In the late eighteenth century , Romanticism was born , bringing many new ideas . It is the most powerful reaction from the front in opposition to that classic . J.J. Rousseau (1712-1778) was one of the first to provide a definition : "Art is not a copy or describe the world we see , which is both a surge of emotion and of the passion . " Surely the idea of ​​freedom and human rights in 1789 due to arouse Revolution also had a decisive influence on literature and contemporary art .

Goethe (1749-1832) also promote individuality and separate identity of the artist .

Baudelaire , in a painting exhibition entitled " Salon 1846 " also gave a definition of romantic art . For the poet , " a romantic nature lies not in the choice of topics , it is not located in the same draw as real or not , that is the way the artist draw what you feel ."

Starting from the literature, Romanticism infiltrated painting at the beginning of the nineteenth century in some European countries , especially in Germany , Britain , and France . It not only frees the artist from the constraints of shaping of the classic rules , but also opens up for them a new horizon , a new world : the world of mind , the imagination , and restore their critical role of the subject . This event marks an important change of literature , art , in Europe . It has given a literary and artistic breath of fresh air , a new inspiration , a new style , a " soul tune " fit human aspirations for freedom and human rights.

The romantic artist , represents this school , such as Friedrich ( Germany ) , Constable , Turner (UK ) , Delacroix , Gericault ( French ) , are well-known works . In connection painters , we have found a strong personality , a distinctive style .

Caspar David Friedrich , Le naufrage ( 1824 )

Overall, romanticism , and its predecessor, the baroque style - but the most typical way to go , before much movement over a century baroque , as Rubens (1577-1640) - had a picture profound , rich character creation , most of the background to the visual arts , coming from Europe to North America , starting in the late nineteenth century onwards . That influence is still persisting to this day , in all the arts - especially in trend expression - whether in painting , sculpture , or architecture .

This is only logical , because the romantic thoughts visual arts not in conflict with the new notion that modern art has brought , beginning in the late nineteenth century, the turn of the century XX . In contrast , we have found the ideal ally in style expression , shown in the rhythm of things , as well as in the use of color independent of the true color of the object , to talk to one inner state , or simply for aesthetic purposes ( symbolic style of Gauguin , Van Gogh , Munch 's style expression , Kirchner , Kandinsky 's abstract expressionism ; beastly style of Matisse , Derain , etc. ) . Generally , romantic style not opposed to the art school in which the role of the imagination , and aesthetic feelings of the artist to be honored .

The concept of modern art

If you compare modern painting today with modern painting right 100 years ago , when it just released, then we will find that there are some changes in terms of aesthetic concepts , but on the definition large , it still depends on the same philosophical concepts had contributed to the birth to it , and has continued to influence a decision on it in a century .

We know that , in the early twentieth century , modern painting was born with a variety of ideas and new concepts aesthetically : color, drawing ( Van Gogh , Gauguin , Cézanne ) ; way put forward the object ( Cézanne ) , how to reconstruct the object in a structure ( cubism : Picasso , Braque , etc. ) ; expression rhythm and movement ( Boccioni , Mondrian , Marcel Duchamp , etc. ) . However, there are also ideas philosophical nature , totally contrary to the classical conception , and had a decisive influence on the arts, such as denying the copied object ( style expression , wild animals , cubism ) , even denying all these images remind the natural world ( abstract painting ) .

At first , is the exploration of Cezannes , from rich rhythmic brushstrokes , from the healthy structure of the shape and color , from putting objects up front , to the almost completely negated object drawing . Not surprisingly that was Cezannes is one of the first abstract painter ( paintings Lauves Park , 1906 - See Van Ngoc , Cezannes 100 years ) .

Van Gogh also brought new ideas about drawing , rhythm , and color . It is worth noting , as he has himself a horse , to follow the path of his own creation and has confirmed a distinct personality . Gauguin also offer unique ideas about the mysterious nature of color , and especially the independence of colors on one compared to the object's true color . School beasts , with Matisse , Derain , also brought about the idea of ​​color in the paintings , as well as in the manifesto .

The artist expressed as Munch and Kirchner also use a new language , strong , with rhythmic brushstrokes and rich with intense color .

1907 , Les Demoiselles d' Avignon works by Picasso was born, paving the way for cubism style , with the ambition to show objects as our eyes are not visible from a point of view , but from several angles .

However, new abstract painting is the painting denies most thorough copy objects , and most deny it all images exist in the natural world ( Kandinsky , Mondrian , Malevitch , etc. 1910) . We can say that this is a new game rules , a new challenge . Abstract work , in the true sense of it , to prove that the beauty of art by the human imagination created entirely independent of the natural world . Of course , not everyone abstract painting must also think like that , but the standard is like, and the rules of the game is like.

In general , all of the artists and the schools mentioned above have their proclamations about his art trends , before or after the work was born .

Most new things , can be found in the change of aesthetic concepts , at least for 50 years , is : in abstract painting , painting with a natural flow of rhythm ( Pollock , Hartung , Zao wou Ki , etc. ) , there is a natural line of sign painting was born almost at the same time ( Soulages , Sugai , weekly, etc. ) . We can say that , although this is not a " pair of concept " opposite , but aesthetically , two disparate concepts , like day and night .

After all , this is just two notions of beauty . In or outside of nature, we are a party that is the beauty of rhythm , one side is the symbol of beauty . A clump of bamboo in the wind stirs create rhythmic beauty of bamboo . A tree that luxuriant foliage , standing in a desolate place of the buttocks not , there 's beauty sign . Rhythm notation exist in the natural world and in art in many forms , sometimes even symbols can also include rhythm (see Van Ngoc , Tuan World War ) .

Piet Mondrian , Arbre ( 1911 )
( On the Mondrian's paintings , including the beauty of rhythm and beauty of the symbol )

However, the beauty of the symbol of the beauty and rhythm are not two opposing concepts only in art , but also many other pairs of concepts : dynamic and static beauty , beauty, beauty, baroque and classical , or romantic beauty and beauty figurative abstraction , etc.

XXI century is not know to bring something new to the art than not , but clearly people living in the era of electronic communication today and , increasingly aware of the variety of art , is overflowing flooded into life , with the new dimensions , and new media . As well, they are aware of the complexity of the market economy , in which art could not turn into commodities .

 But , it seems that people have become more tolerant , not even his self- confined in narrow conceptions , more rigid . This , in itself was both a critical and change , not only in terms of art only, but also in terms of awareness of human freedom in general .

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