All latin words and english meanings

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abbas abbatis : father /abbot.

abbatia : abbey, monastery.

abduco : to lead, or take away/ detach, withdraw.

abeo : to go away, retire /depart from life, die.

abeo : to digress / change / vanish, disappear.

abscido : to cut off, to separate, take away.

absconditus : hidden, concealed.

absens, absentis : (adj.) absent, missing, away, gone.

absorbeo : to swallow, gulp down, carry away, engross.

absque : (+ abl.) without.

abstergo : to wipe off, clean away.

absum : to be absent, be away, be missing.

abundans : abundant, overflowing, abounding in.

abundantia : abundance, bounty, plenty

abutor : to make full use of, to abuse.

abutor : to use abusive language / use a word incorrectly.

ac : =atque and

accedo : to approach, come near /(things) to be added.

accendo : to kindle, illuminate, inflame.

acceptus : welcome, pleasant, agreeable.

accipio : to consider oneself indebted, receive, learn, take.

accommodo : to adjust, adapt, accommodate oneself.

accusator : accusor, plaintiff.

accuso : to accuse, blame, find fault with.

acer : sharp, keen, eager, severe, fierce.

acerbitas : harshness, bitterness.

acerbus : bitter, gloomy, dark.

acervus : a heap, mass.

acidus : sharp, sour.

acies : keeness, edge, sharpness, battle-line, battlefield.

acquiro : to acquire, gain, get, obtain.

acsi : as if, (Herimann p. 283, 293).

adamo : to fall in love with, find pleasure in.

adaugeo : to make greater, add, increase.

addo : to give, bring, place, / inspire, cause,/ add, join.

adduco : to lead, induce, persuade.

ademptio: a taking away.

adeo : to such a point, such an extent, so far, so long.

adeo : to approach, visit, come to, undertake.

adeptio : attainment, obtaining.

adepto : to obtain, get, acquire.

adfectus affectus : (fr. adficio) influenced, worked upon.

adfero affero : to cause, bring about, contribute.

adfero affero : to bring news, report / apply, bring to bear.

adficio : to affect, afflict, weaken, sap, exhaust, drain.

adflicto affligo : to injure, weaken, discourage, damage, break.

adhaero : to hang to, stick to, adhere.

adhuc : till then, till now, still, even now, besides, also, yet.

adicio : to direct, address, apply / to throw to.

adimpleo : to fulfill, perform.

adinventitias : (?) Herimann, cap 2.

adipiscor : to come up to, overtake, obtain.

adiuvo : to help, aid, assist.

administratio : giving of help, administration, government.

admiratio : wonder, astonishment, surprise, admiration.

admiror : to wonder at, admire, marvel at.

admitto : to admit, receive.

admoneo : admonish, advise.

admonitio : warning, reminder. (insult: Herimann, p. 282).

admoveo : to move to, bring up, apply.

adnuo : to nod assent.

adopto : to wish for oneself, adopt, select, pick out.

adsidue assidue : continuously, without remission.

adstringo : (persons) bind, oblige, (+ refl.) commit oneself to

adstringo : to tight, compress, compact /

adstringo : to draw together, tighten, bind.

adsuesco assuesco : to grow accustomed to, used to, make familiar.

adsum : to assist, be present, be near, be in attendance,

adsumo (assumo) : to take to oneself, claim, appropriate, call.

adulatio : fawning, flattery, sycophancy, buttering up.

adulescens : young man, youth, lad.

adulescentia : youth

adultus : (adj.) grown up, mature, adult, of age.

aduro (adustum) : to set fire to, burn, singe, kindle, light.

advenio : to come, arrive, reach.

adversus : (prep. + acc.) toward, against, facing

adversus : (adj.) facing, opposite, opposing.

adverto : to turn towards, direct one's attention to, attract.

advoco : to summon, call / call in an advisor.

aedificium edificium : building, structure.

aeger eger : sick, ill.

aegre egre : (adv.) hardly, scarcely, with difficulty, laboriously.

aegresco egresco : to fall ill, become troubled, grow worse.

aegresco : to become ill, grow worse, be ill.

aegretudo egretudo : sickness, mental illness.

aegrotatio egrotatio : sickness, illness.

aegrus : ill, diseased, unwell.

aeneus eneus : made of copper or bronze, brazen.

aequitas equitas : justice, fairness, equity.

aequus, equus : level, even, calm, equal, favorable, just.

aer, aeris : air, atmosphere, ether, weather.

aestas estas : summer.

aestivus estivus : pertaining to summer.

aestus estus : heat, tide.

aetas : an age, stage, period of life, time, era.

aeternus eternus : eternal, everlasting, without end.

Affligeniensis, Haffligeniensis : Afflighem.

ager (agri) : farm, field, acre.

aggero : to make a mound, heap up, increase.

aggredior : to go to, approach, address, attack.

agnitio : recognition, knowledge.

agnosco : to know again, recognize, report, understand, admit.

agnosco : acknowledge.

agnosco : to recognize, understand, perceive.

ago (egi actum ) : to spend time, live / manage, drive, lead.

ait : he says.

aiunt: they say.

Aldenard : Audenarde.

alienus : somebody else's, foreign, alien, strange, different.

alii ... alii : some ... others.

alioqui : (adv.) otherwise.

alioquin : (adv.) otherwise, in some respects/ in general.

aliqua : some.

aliquando : at any time, sometimes, occasionally, at last.

aliquanta : (adj.) moderate, or some size.

aliquanto : somewhat, considerably.

aliquantum : (noun) a good deal.

aliquantus : (adj.) of some size, moderate.

aliqui : some.

aliquid : someone, somebody, something.

aliquis : someone, anyone, anything, (adv.) in any respect.

aliquo : (adv.) in some direction.

aliquot : some, several.

aliquotiens : some times.

alius alia aliud : other, another, someone else, something else.

allatus (=adfero) : having been brought.

alo (alui altum) : nourish, cherish, support, sustain, maintain, keep. Alos :

alquod: some.

alter : (adv.) otherwise.

alter altera alterum : the second, the other one.

alter ... alter : the one ... the other.

altus : high, deep.

alveus : hollow, basket, bed (of a river).

amaritudo : bitterness.

Ambianis : Amiens.

ambitus : border, edge, extent /going around, circuit.

ambulo : to walk.

amicitia : friendship

amiculum : cloak, cape.

amicus : friend, comrade.

amissio/amissus : loss.

amita : father's sister, paternal aunt.

amitto : to dismiss, send away, lose, let slip away.

amitto : to send away, let go, let slip, lose.

amo : to love, like, be fond of, cherish.

amor : love, affection, infatuation, passion.

amoveo : to move away, remove, take out, shift.

amplexus : an embracing, surrounding, loving embrace, [euphemism]

amplio : to enlarge, increase, improve.

amplitudo : size, breadth, dignity, grandeur, greatness.

amplus : large, spacious, ample /great important, honorable.

an : (adv.) or "Are you going OR are you staying?"

ancilla : maidservant, also used by nuns to decribe themselves.

Andegavense : Anjou.

angelus : angel.

angulus : corner, niche.

angustus : narrow, limited, strait, tight, constricted.

animadverto : to turn the mind to, take notice of, see, perceive.

animi : at heart.

animus : courage, vivacity, bravery, will, spirit, soul.

animus : character, intellect, memory, consciousness, often = mind.

annus : year.

anser : goose.

ante : (prep. + acc.) before/ in front of/ (adv.) before, previously.

antea : (adv.) before, previously, formerly.

antepono : (+ dat.) put before, prefer, favor, promote.

antiquus : ancient, old, hoary,

aperio : to uncover, lay bare, reveal, make clear.

aperte : openly, frankly.

apostolus : (legal) notice sent to a higher tribunal / ecc. Apostle.

apparatus : equipment, gear, machinery/ splendor, magnificence.

appareo : to become visible, appear, manifest

appello : to call, name, summon.

appono : to appoint a person, to add something.

appono : to place near, put to, serve, put on the table.

appositus : placed near, approaching, appropriate, appositively.

approbo : to approve.

appropinquo : (+ dat.) to near, drawn near, come close, approach.

apto : to fit, adapt, adjust, make ready, or fit.

aptus : fitted, connected, fastened /prepared, fitted out.

aptus : suitable, appropriate, fitting.

apud : (prep. + acc.) among, in the presence of, at, at the house of.

aqua : water.

ara : altar

aranea : spider's web.

arbitro arbitror : to witness, bear witness / judge, arbitrate.

arbor : tree.

arbustum : a vineyard planted with trees.

arbustus : planted with trees.

arca archa : chest, box, money box, coffin, cell.

arceo : to shut up, enclose.

arcesso, accerso : to bring, fetch, summon, call for.

arcus : bow (BOW and arrows), arch, bend, arc.

argentum : silver, money.

argumentum : proof, evidence.

arguo : to show, make clear, attempt to show.

arma : arms, weapons.

armarium : cupboard, chest, safe (for food, clothing, money).

armo : to provide arms, arm, equip, fit out.

aro : to plow.

ars, artis : skill method, technique, conduct, character.

articulus : (of time) a moment, crisis.

artificiose : skillfuly.

artificiosus : skillful, accomplished, skillfuly made.

arto : to press together, reduce, abrdiged.

arx , arcis : citadel, stronghold, fortress, keep, donjon.

ascisco : to receive, admit/ adopt / take up, approve.


asper : rought, harsh, severe.

asperitas : roughness, severity/ harshness, fierceness.

aspicio : to look at, behold, gaze at, see.

asporto : to carry off, take away.

assentator : flatterer, sycophant, yes-man.

astrum : star, constellation.

Asvesniis : of Avesne.

at : (conj.) but. (more emphatic and emotional than sed).

atavus : great-great-great grandfather, ancestor.

ater atra atrum : dark.

atqui : (conj.) and yet, still.

Atrebatum : Arras.

atrocitas : hashness, cruelty, frightfulness, barbarity, horror.

atrox : terrible, cruel, horror.

attero : destroy, waste, weaken, impair.

attero : to weaken, ruin, rub against, rub away, erode.

attollo : to raise, lifet up, elevate/ excite, exalt.

attonbitus : frantic, inspired, thunder-struck, stunned.

auctor : author, originator.

auctoritas : authority

auctus : growth, enlargement, increase.

audacia : boldness, dash, daring, audacity.

audacter, audaciter : boldly, proudly, fearlessly.

audax : bold

audentia : boldness, courage.

audeo : to dare. (part. ausus )

audio : to hear, hearken, listen to.

auditor : hearer, listener.

aufero : to carry away, remove /steal, carry off, make away with.

aureus : golden.

auris : ear.

aurissiodorenses : Auxerre, dept Yonne, between Paris and Dijon.

aurum : gold.

aut...aut : either...Or.

autem : moreover, however, but, also.

autus : increase, enlargement, growth.

Auxatia : Alsace.

auxilium : aid, help, assistance, support.

avaritia : avarice, greed.

avarus : greedy, avaricious.

aveho : to carry away, remove (avexi avectum )

averto : to turn away, avert, avoid. turn back.

Avesniis : Avesnes.

avoco : to call away, divert.


baiulus : porter, pall-bearer, carrier of a burden.

balbus : stammering, stuttering, fumbling.

barba : beard, whiskers.

bardus : stupid, slow, dull.

basium : kiss.

beatus : blessed, fortunate, sometimes "saint".

bellicus : martial, military, war-like.

bellum : war.

bellus : beautiful, pretty, charming, handsome.

bene : well (melior : better / optime : best )

beneficium : benefit, favor, service, privilege, right.

benevolentia : benevolence, kindness, good will.

benigne : kindly, generously.

Berlinmonte : Berlaimont, near Le Quesnoy.

bestia : animal, beast.

bibo : to drink, quaff.

bis : twice.

blandior : to flatter, caress, (+ dat.) coax.

blanditia : blandishments, attractions, allurement, charm.

Blesense : Blois.

Boloniense : Bouillon.

bonus : good (melior : better / optimus : best ).

bos (bovis ) : cow, ox. bull.

Brabatensium : Brabant.

Brachants : Brabant.

brevis : short, small, brief.

brevitas : shortness, brevity.

breviter : briefly.

Brocherota : Broqueroi.


cado : to fall, drop, plummet, topple.

caecus : blind, sightless.

caelestis : heavenly, celestial / noun, a god, dweller in heaven.

caelum : sky, heaven.

calamitas : calamity, misfortune, disaster.

calamus : anything made or reed -- pen, arrow, pipe, etc.

calcar, -is : spur.

calco : to tread, trample upon.

calculus : pebble, stone.

callide : skilfully, cleverly / cunningly, slyly, subtly.

callidus : clever, dextrous, experienced, skilful / cunning, sly.

Cameracum : Cambrais.

campana : bell.

candidus : bright, shining, white.

canis : dog.

canonicus : canonical, according to the canons, legal, lawful, right.

canonus : canon, member of a cathedral chapter or canonry, Augustinian.

canto : to sing.

capillus : hair.

capio : to seize, take, choose/ attack, injure/ comprehend.

capitulus : chapter, chapter meeting, chapter house.

capto : to grab, try to get, grab at.

caput capitis : head /top, summit /chief

carbo carbonis : carbon, coal, charcoal.

carcer : prison, cell, jail, dungeon.

careo : (+ abl. of sep.) be without, be deprived of, lack, want.

caries : rottennes, corruption, decay.

cariosus : rotten, decayed.

caritas : dearness, affection / charity.

carmen : song, poem.

Carnotense : Chartres.

Carnutum Carnotum : Chartres.

carpo : to pluck, seize, grab, lay hold of, hold on to.

carus : dear, beloved /costly, high-priced, expensive.

casso : to bring to naught, destroy, annul, make void.

caste : purely, spotlessly, purely, uprightly, chastely.

Castellandum : Chateaudun.

casus : accident, chance, fortune.

catena : chain, fetters.

caterva : crowd, troop, flock.

catervatim : in troops, in masses.

cathalaunenses : Chalons.

cattus : cat.

cauda : the tail of an animal.

causa : (in the abl.) on account of, for the sake of.

causa : cause /reason, motive, pretext /interest.

causa : case at law, case, law-suit /situation, condition.

caute cautim : cautiously, with security.

cautela : caution, precaution, security.

caveo cavi cautum : beware, avoid, look out for.

cavus : hole, pit.

cedo : to go, proceed /turn out, happen/go away, withdraw.

cedo cessi cessum : to grant, yield.

cedo : (+ dat.) give ground to, submit to, be inferior to.

celebrer : famous, renowned.

celebrus : abounding in, rich in, much frequented, respected.

celer : quick, swift, rapid, speedy, fast.

celeritas : speed, swiftness, rapidity, quickness.

celeriter : rapidly, quickly, swiftly, speedily.

celo : to hide, conceal, keep secret.

cena : dinner, meal.

cenaculum : garret, attic.

ceno : to dine.

censura : judgement.

centum : one hundred, 100 (undeclinable).

cerno : to separate, sift, distinguish /decide, resolve, determine.

cernuus : faling headlong.

certe certo : (adv) certainly, assuredly.

certo : to contend, settle, dispute, to settle by combat.

certus : undoubted, certain, sure.

certus : settled, resolved, decided /definite, certain, sure.

cervus : stag. deer

cetera : for the rest, otherwise

ceteri : the remaining, the rest, the others

ceterum : (adv.) otherwise, moreover, but.

ceterus : the other, the rest.

charisma carisma : gift, present.

chirographum : autograph, person's own handwriting /written charter.

cibo : food for animals

cibus : food for men and animals.

cicuta : hemlock.

cilicium : (? Herman, p. 311)

cimentarius : mason?

ciminatio : accusation, calumny, charge.

ciminosus : reproachful, slanderous.

cinis cineris : ashes, embers.

circumvenio : to come around, surround, cheat, defraud.

circumvenio : to beset, assail.

cito: quickly, rapidly, speedily.

civilis : civil, civic.

civis : citizen, townsman, bourgeois, burgess.

civitas : state, citzenship, city-state.

clam : secretly, in secret.

clamo : to call, shout, cry aloud, proclaim, declare.

clamor : loud shouting, cry.

claro : to make bright or clear, make clear in the mind.

clarus : clear, bright /renowned, famous, illustrious

claudeo : to limp, halt, be lame, to hobble.

claudo (clausus) : to confine, shut up, close, blockade, besiege.

claudus : lame.

claustrum : bolt, bar, prison, den, pen, enclosure/ cloister.

clementia : indulgence, forbearance, humanity, mercy, gentleness, etc.

clibanus : oven, furnace/ tray for bread making.

coadunatio : a gathering together, a summing up, a uniting.

coaegresco : to become sick at the same time.

coepi : began, started, undertook, initiated (pres. incipio ).

coerceo : surround, enclose, restrain, confine.

cogito : to think, ruminate, ponder, consider, plan.

cognatus : (adj.) related by blood (noun) a relative, kinsman.

cognomen : surname, family name, nick-name.

cognosco : to examine, inquire, learn.

cogo, coegi, coactum : to compel, restrict, confine.

cogo, coegi, coactum : to bring together, drive, draw.

cohaero cohero cohesi cohesum : to adhere, stick together

cohibeo : confine, restrain, hold back, repress.

cohors : a yard, enclosure /troop, 1/10 of a legion.

cohortor : to encourage, incite, exhort.

colligo : to gather together, collect, assemble.

colloco : to place, put, arrange.

collum : neck.

colo colui cultum : cultivate, cherish

color : color.

coloratus : colored /dark-complexioned.

coloro : to color.

coma : hair of the head, leaves, rays of light.

combibo : to drink up, suck in.

comburo : to burn up, to ruin, consume.

comedo comedi comesum : to eat up, consume /waste, squander.

comes comitis : companion, friend, comrade /count.

cometes : comet

cometissa comitissa : countess.

comis : courteous, kind, friendly.

comitatus : train, retinue, following /war band.

comiter : courteously, in a kindly, friendly manner.

comitto : to entrust, commit.

commemoro : to remind, relate, mention.

commeo : To go up and down, back and forth, in and out.

commessatio, onis : eating together.

comminor : to threaten.

comminuo : to scatter, weaken, damage.

comminus : hand to hand, in close combat.

commisceo : to intermingle, join, mix.

commissum : undertaking, that which is entrusted.

commodo : (+ acc.) to furnish, lend, give.

commodo : to make fit, adapt, please, oblige, serve.

commodum : suitable time, opportunity, convenience, use.

commodum : convenience, advantage, opportunity, comfort.

commoneo : to remind someone forcibly of somthing.

commoneo : to remember, recollect.

commoneo : to impress upon one. to remind.

commoveo : to move violently, disturb, shake /excite, upset.

communis : common, general, run of the mill.

comparo : to compare.

compater : the godfather of a man's child.

compatior : to suffer with one, feel pity, have compassion.

compello : to drive together, collect, force, compel.

comperio : to disclose wholly, lay open / learn, find out.

comperio : to disclose fully, find out with certainty.

comperte : on good authority.

compes, compedis : fetters, shackles, chained.

compes : fetters, shackles, chains.

competo : to be appropriate, suitable, fit.

complectus : embrace, grasp.

compleo : to finish.

compleo : to fill up, man, bring up to strength, fulfil.

compono : to put together, compose.

compositio : composition, agreement, pact/ arrangement.

compositus : orderly, matching, made up of pieces.

comprehendo : to seize, arrest, take prisoner, catch red-handed.

comprehendo : to grasp, take together, unite /comprehend.

comprehendo : to embrace, take firmly, include, seize.

comprobo : to approve fully/ to confirm, prove, establish.

comprovincialis : born in the same province.

comptus : a head-dress, a hairband.

conatus : exertion, effort / undertaking / impulse, inclination.

concedo : to concede, yield, allow, grant, withdraw, give up.

concepta : measures, capacity.

concero : connect join, twine, join in conflict.

concido : to fall down, sink, perish / (wind) subside.

concido : to be ruined, fail /cut up, cut down, destroy.

concilium : council

concipio : to take or lay hold of, receive, take in.

concisus : cut up, broken, brief, concise.

concito : to move violently, stir up, excite.

conculco : to tread under foot, despise, oppress, suppress.

concupiscentia : avarice, covetousness.

concupisco : to covet, aim at, desire eagerly.

concutio : to shake, disturb, agitate.

concutio : to shake together, agitate, alarm, disturb, shatter.

Condato : Cond .

condico : to agree, fix, settle, make arrangements.

conduco : hire, employ for wages, among many other meanings.

confero : to bring together, put together, collect/

confero : discuss, debate, confer/ betake oneself, devote.

confestim : immediately, without delay.

confido : have confidence in, be confident of, rely upon.

confiteor confessus : to confess, own up, admit, acknowledge.

conforto : to strengthen much.

confugo : to flee, have recourse to, take refuge.

congregatio : assembly, society, union.

congrego : to gather together, assemble, convene.

congruus : agreeing, fit, suitable.

conicio : to hurl, throw /put together, conjecture.

coniecto : to throw together, infer, guess, conclude.

conitor : to press upon, to struggle to reach

coniuratio : conspiracy, plot.

coniuratus : conspirator, plotter.

coniuro : to take an oath together, plot, conspire.

conor : to undertake, try, venture, presume, attempt.

conqueror : to complain loudly.

conscendo : to ascend, mount, go up.

conscientia : conscience, consciouness, knowledge

conscindo : to tear in pieces.

conscius : conscious of, aware of.

conservo : to preserve, conserve, maintain, keep, hold to.

considero : to look at, regard carefully,

consido : to set down, settle.

consilio : intentionally, on purpose, designedly.

consilium : deliberation, consultation, assembly, council.

consilium : advice, suggestion, wisdom, plan, purpose, judgment.

consisto : (+ in) to depend on, rely on.

consisto : to take one's stand, stand still, stop, be posted.

consisto : (+ abl. etc.) to be formed of, consist/ stop, stay.

consitor : sower, planter.

conspergo : to sprinkle, bestrew.

conspicio : to catch sight of, perceive, behold, understand.

constans : steady, firm, unchanging, constant, unwavering.

constanter : steadily, firmly.

constituo : to set up, place, establish, post, station.

constituo : to arrange, decide, appoint, settle, found, set up.

consto : to be established, stand firm, stop, endure.

constringo constrixi constrictum : to bind, confine, restrain.

construo construxi constructum : to construct, build, arrange.

constupator : ravisher, debaucher.

constupro : to ravish, corrupt.

consuasor : advisor, counselor.

consuefacio : to accustom, acclimate, become used to.

consuesco : to accustom, inure, habituate

consueta : customary, usual.

consuetudo : custom, usage, habit /intimacy, familiar acquaintance.

consulatio : deliberation, inquiry, full consideration.

consulo : to reflect, consider, ponder, reflect.

consulo : (+ dat.) look to the interests of/consult, ask advice.

consulo : to look to the interests of, come to a conclusion.

consulto : to ask the advice of, consult.

consulto : to consider carefully, weigh, ponder.

consultum : decree.

consummatio : completion, summing up, adding up.

consummo : to add together, sum up, make perfect, complete.

consumo : to spend, employ, use up, finish, waste away, destroy.

consuo consui consutum : to sew together, stitch.

consurgo : to stand up, rise up /to arise, break out.

contabesco : to waste slowly away, decline in health.

contactus : touching, contact /contagion.

contages : a touch, contact.

contagio contagium : contagion, infection /touching, contact.

contamino : to pollute, infect.

contego : to cover, shield, protect, defend.

contemno : to think meanly of, despise, condemn, hate.

contemplatio : survey, contemplation.

contemplor : to mark out, regard, consider carefully, survey.

contemptim : contemptuously.

contemptio : scorn, disdain, contempt.

contemptus : despised, despicable, contemptible.

contendo : to compare, contrast /compete.

contendo : to contend, strive, struggle, hasten.

contendo : to assert, maintain /shoot (a missile), cast.

contente : eagerly, earnestly.

contentus : contented, satisfied

contentus : strained, stretched /eager, zealous.

contigo : (with dat.), to happen, befall.

contineo : to touch, reach, grasp, affect, infect.

contineo contigi, contectum : border on /befall (good luck).

contineo : to keep in, surround, contain, confine, include.

contineo : hold together, keep together, connect, join.

contineo: to hold back, restrain.

contingo : (contactum) to touch closely, happen to, befall.

continuo : (adv.) immediately, at once.

continuus : connected together, continuous, uninterrupted.

contra : (+ acc.) against.

contradictio : a speaking against, contradiction.

contrado : to deliver together, or wholly.

contraho : to draw together, collect, assemble, carry out.

contristo : to make sad or gloomy

contristo : to sadden, afflict, damage (of crops).

conturbo : to confuse, scatter, throw into confusion, distress.

conventus : coming tohether, assembly, union, congress.

conversatio : way, manner of life /monastic life.

converto : to turn around, cause to turn /to adopt the monastic life.

convoco : to call together, convene.

copia : abundamce, supply.

copiae copie : supplies, troops, forces.

copiose : fully, at length, copiously.

Corbeiam : Corbie.

cornu : horn.

corona : crown, diadem.

corpus corporis : body, corpse.

correptius : more shortly.

corrigo : (correctum) to make correct, make right.

corripio : to seize, snatch up, steal, (of a disease) attack

corroboro : to strengthen.

corrumpo : to break up, destroy, annihilate /spoil, weaken.

corrumpo : (documents) to falsify / (character) to corrupt.

corruo : to fall to the ground, sink down /be ruined, destroyed.

Corturiacum : Courtrai.

coruscus : (a) flashing, twinkling, shaking, trembling.

cotidie : daily, every day.

Courtacum : Courtrai.

crapula : wine-drinking, intoxication, drunkenness.

cras : (adv.) tomorrow, on the morrow.

crastinus : of the morrow, the morrow.

creator : creator, founder.

creatura : creature, servant.

creber : thick, frequent, numerous.

crebro : repeatedly, often, one after the other, time after time.

credo : to believe /trust, commit / trust in, rely on/ think.

creo : to create, make.

creptio : taking by force, seizure.

crepusculum : dusk, twilight.

cresco : (cretum) to grow, increase, expand.

creta : chalk, fuller's earth.

cribro : to sift.

cribrum : sieve.

crinis : hair.

crinitus : long haired.

cruciamentum : torture, torment.

crucio : to torture, torment.

crudelis : cruel.

cruentus : to make bloody, stain with blood.

cruentus : bloody, bloodthirsty, blood-red.

crur, cruris : leg, shank, shin, also foot.

crustulum : pastery, cookie.

crux crucis : cross.

cubicularis : pertaining to a bedroom

cubicularius : bed-chamber servant, chamberlain.

cubiculum : bedroom, sleeping chamber.

cubitum ire : to go to bed, retire

cubitum : the elbow /a cubit.

cubo : to lie down, recline.

cui : (masc. sing. dat.) TO WHOM did you give it?

cui : (fem. sing. dat.) IN WHICH (province) did you live?

cui : (neut. sing. dat.) (the monster), TO WHOM the cattle belonged.

cuius : (neut. sing. gen) (the building) the size OF WHICH was great.

cuius : (masc. sing. gen.) (the saint) WHOSE virtues were many.

cuius : (fem. sing. gen.) (the queen), the vices OF WHOM were many.

cuiusmodi : of what kind.

culpa : fault, blame, (esp. aginst chastity).

culpo : to blam, censure, accuse.

cultellus : a little knife.

cultura : cultivation

cum : (prep + abl.) with.

cum : (with indicative) when.

cum : (with subjunctive) when, as, while, since, although.

cunabula : cradle.

cunae : nest for young birds.

cunctatio : delay.

cunctator : delayer, procrastinator,

cunctor : to delay, impede, hold up.

cunctus : all, all collectively, the whole.

cupiditas : ambition, avarice, party spirit, eager desire.

cupido : passion, desire, wantining, yearning, longing.

cupio : to desire, wish, long for, desire.

cuppedia : delicacies, candies, sweetmeats.

cupressus : cypress, cyrpess wood, a cypress-wood casket.

cur : why, wherefore.

cura : management, administration, care, concern, charge.

curatio : attention /medical attention, healing, curing.

curator : guardian, overseer

curia : court

curiositas : curiosity, inquisitiveness, nosiness.

curiosus : careful, attentive/ curious, inquisitive/ worn out by cares.

curis quris : a spear.

curo : to care for, trouble about, pay attention to.

curo : manage, administer /provide money.

curo : (+gerundive) to see to a thing being done / cure, rest.

curriculum : a running, race, lap around the track, course.

currus : cart /a plow with wheels.

cursim : hastily, quickly, rapidly.

cursito : to run up and down.

curso : to run back and forth.

cursor : runner, carrier, messenger.

cursus : a race, a running, race course, race track, course.

curto : to shorten, abbreviate.

Curtracus : Courtrai.

curtus : shortened /mutilated, defective /gelded.

curvo : to bend, arch, curve /influence.

curvus : arched, bent, bowed, curved, crooked, wrong (morally crooked).

custodia : protection, custody.

custodiae custodie : guards, wardens.

custos : (custodis) guardian, keeper, watchman, attendant,, guard /spy.


damnatio : condemnation.

damno : to condemn, damn.

dapifer : senescal.

de : (prep. + abl.) down from, from, concerning, about.

debeo : to owe, to be morally bound to, to be bound by.

debilito : to weaken, ennervate, sap, exhaust.

decens, decenter : properly, fittingly, suitably.

decerno : to decide, determine, settle.

decerto : to contend, fight to the finish.

decet : it is seemly, comely, suitable, proper.

decimus : tenth.

decipio : (deceptus) ensnare, trap, beguile, deceive, cheat.

decor : beauty, grace.

decoro : beautify, embellish, adorn.

decorus : beautiful, graceful, charming, proper, fit, becoming.

decretum : decree, judgment, edict, order.

decumbo : to fall, fall into, lie down.

dedecor : unseemly, shameful, disgraceful, dishonorable.

dedecus : shame, dishonor, disgrace, crime, dishonorable act.

dedico : to dedicate.

deduco : to lad out colonists, found a colony.

defaeco : to cleanse, purify, purge.

defendo : to defend, ward off, protect, shelter.

defero : to hand over, carry down, communicate, offer, refer.

defessus : weary, tired.

defetiscor (defessus) : to grow tired, weary.,

deficio : (defectum) to fail, to weaken, to be in want.

defigo : fasten down, secure, fix firmly/ concentrate, fix upon.

defleo : to weep for, bewail.

defleo : to bewail, weep for.

defluo : to flow down, waste, disappear.

defluo : to flow away, disappear, be lost.

defungo : to discharge one's duties, quit, retire, die, finish

degenero : to cause to degenerate, disgrace by degeneracy.

degenero : to be unlike one's kind, fall off, degenerate.

degero : to pass time, live.

degusto : to taste.

deinde : next, then, thereafter, from that place.

delectatio : delight, pleasure, enjoyment.

delecto : to attract, delight/ (pass + abl) take delight in.

delego : to transfer, commit, assign, impute, attribute, ascribe.

deleo : (deletum ) to destroy, wipe out, erase.

delibero : to consider, deliberate.

delicate : luxuriously, delicately, slowly.

delicate : (adv.) luxuriously.

deliciae : allurements, charms, delights, fancies / sweetheart

delinquo : to fail, be wanting/ fail in duty, commit a crime.

deludo : to mock, cheat.

demens : (dementis ) insane, mad, out of one's mind, foolish.

demergo : to sink, plunge into, dip under, go into debt.

demitto : set down, let fall (to offer payment to the church), lower.

demo : to take away, subtract.

demonstro : to indicate, show, describe, explain.

demoror : to loiter, linger, tarry, belay.

demulceo : to stroke down, caress by stroking.

demum : at length at last, finally.

denego : to refuse, deny, reject.

denique : at last, finally, again, in short.

dens : (dentis ) tooth.

denuncio : declare, give notice, announce.

denuntio : to announce officially, pronounce, declare.

denuo : anew, again, a second time, afresh.

deorsum : downwards.

depereo : to perish, be utterly ruined.

depono : to put down, lay aside.

depopulo depopulor : to lay waste, ravage, devastate.

deporto : to carry off, to take away.

depraedor depredor : to plunder, lay waste, pillage, ravage.

deprecator : intercessor, one who pleads on behalf.

deprecor : to entreat for, beg for /intercede /curse.

deprecor : to beg by entreaty, to excuse oneself / curse.

deprehensio : detection.

deprimo (depressus) : to press down, depress, low-lying.

depromo : to take down, produce, fetch out.

depulso : push aside, thrust away.

deputo : to count, estimate/prune, cut off.

derelinquo : to forsake, desert, abandon.

derideo : to laugh at, mock, deride.

deripio : to tear down, snatch away.

desidero : to long for, wish for greatly, to miss.

desidiosus : lazy, unmotivated.

desino (desiit) : to leave off, give over, cease, stop, desist.

desino : cease, stop, end, desist.

desipio : to act foolishly, play the fool, make an ass of one's self.

desolo : to leave desolate, abandoned, to forsake.

desparatus : given up on / desparate.

despecto : overlook, dispise, look down upon.

despero :to have no hope, despair, give up.

despero : to be without hope, despair / despair of, give up.

despiciens : contemptuous.

despicio : to look down, regard from above, despise.

desposco : to demand.

destinatus : resolute, firm, determined, with one's mind made up.

destituo : to set down, place/ abandon, leave in the lurch.

detego detectum : to uncover, lay bare, disclose.

determino : to fix the limits of, set boundaries to, delimit.

detineo : hold off, hold back, detain.

detrimentum : damage, loss, detriment.

deus : god.

devenio : to come to, arrive at, reach.

devito : to avoid.

devito : to avoid.

devoco : to call away, call down, call aside.

devotio : (Christian) piety, devotion, zeal.

devoveo : to consecrate, sacrifice, devote /curse, execrate.

dexter : right, on the right.

dextera : the right hand.

diabolus : devil, Satan.

dico : (dictum ) to say, tell, speak, name, call, pronounce.

dictata : things dictated, lessons, presents.

dictator : dictator.

dictito : to say often, reiterate.

dicto : to say often, dictate, get written down.

didicerat : (?) Herimann, p. 281.

didico : to be told (Herimann cap. 39, 44).

dido dididi didtum : to separate, divide, distribute.

dies diei : day

diffama :tus : spread around, made known.

differo : to spread news / delay, defer, postpone.

differo : to spread about, spread news / harrass, disturb.

differo : to delay, postpone / to differ, be different.

differtus : stuffed full, crammed, jammed.

difficilis : difficult, hard, troublesome.

difficultas : difficulty, need, trouble, distress.

digestor : arranger, composer, one who makes a pattern.

dignitas : merit, worth, prestige, dignity.

dignosco dignosco : to distinguish, recognize as different.

dignus : (+ abl.) worthy, worthy of, meritorious.

digredior digredi digressus : to depart, deviate, digress.

digressio : separation, departure, digression.

digressus : separation, departure, digression.

dilabor, to break up, scatter, dissolve, slip away, fall apart.

dilato : to spread out, extend, expand, increase.

dilgenter : attentively, earnestly, carefully, diligently.

diligens : diligent, careful.

diligentia : diligence, industry, perseverance, persistence.

diligo : to choose out, esteem highly, prize, love.

diluculo : dawn, daybreak.

diluo : (of troubles) to remove, resolve.

dimidium : half.

dimitto : to break up, dismiss, leave, abandon.

directus : plain, simple, direct, open, straightforward.

diripio : to tear in pieces, lay waste, devastate, plunder.

diripio : to separate, tear apart /pillage, devastate, lay waste.

dirunitas : long duration.

diruo : to demolish, destroy, ruin.

discedo : (discessum ) to break up, depart, go away, pass away.

discidium : separation, division, disagreement, tearing apart.

discipulus : disciple, student, learner, pupil.

disco : to learn, become acquainted with.

discrepo : to differ, to be diifferent, vary, disagree.

dispono : to arrange, put in order, draw up (troops).

disputatio : debate, dispute, discussion.

disputo : discuss.

dissero : to examine, treat of, discuss.

dissimilis : unlike, different, disparate, dissimilar, distinct.

dissimulo : to ignore, leave unnoticed.

dissimulo : to conceal, disguise, keep secret.

dissolutus : lax, weak, wanting in energy, dissolute, profligate.

distinguo : to mark off, distinguish, divide/ separate.

distribuo : to distribute, divide.

districtus (f. distringo) : strict, severe /hesitating /busy.

distulo ; (past) to delay [MGHss 25 : 268].

dito : to enrich, make wealthy.

diu : by day, for a long time, a long time ago.

diu : adv. a long while, long time, for a long time.

diutinus : lasting a long time, enduring, long-lived.

diutius : longer, too long (a period of time).

diuturnus : lasting a long time, of long duration.

diversus : different, unlike, opposed, hostile.

dives : rich, opulent, wealthy.

divinitus : divine influence, admirably, nobly, by inspiration.

divinus : divine, sacred.

divitiae divitie : riches, wealth.

do dare dedi datum : to give, offer, convey, offer, donate, furnish.

doceo docui doctum : to instruct, teach, tutor.

doctor : teacher.

doctrina : doctrine, teaching, instruction, learning.

doctus : taught, instructed, learned, tutored.

dolens : painfully.

doleo : to suffer pain, to be pained, grieve.

dolor : pain, grief. misery, pain, suffering.

dolose : slyly, deceitfuly.

dolosus : crafty, cunning, sly, deceitful.

dolus : fraud, deceit, guile, treachery, a trap.

domesticus : domestic, civil.

domina domna: lady, mistress.

dominatus : rule, mastery, tyranny, domination.

dominus domno : master, lord.

domito : to tame, subdue, break in.

domus : house, home, residence.

donec : up to the time when, until, as long as, while.

donum : gift, present, donation.

dormio : to sleep, slumber, siesta, nap.

dubito : to doubt, hesitate.

dubium : doubt, hesitation, reservation.

duco : to lead on the march, marry a wife, command.

duco : to lead, draw, esteem, consider.

duco : to draw, shape, construct/ (time) spend, delay.

duco : to charm, influence, mislead, draw in.

duco : to calculate, count, reckon, esteem, considered.

dudum : for a long while, a long while ago, some time age.

dulcedo : sweetness, pleasantness, charm.

dulcidine : sweetly, pleasantly, charmingly.

dulcis : sweet, pleasant, agreeable.

dulcitudo dulcitudinis

dum : while, as long as, until.

dummodo : (conj. + subj.) provided

dumtaxat : at least, not less than / at most, not more than.

duo : two

duro: to harden, last, endure.

durus : hard, harsh, tough, strong,enduring, / rough, rude, uncouth.

Dusiol petram : Duissenpierre.

dux ducis : leader, guide, commander, general, duke.


eatenus : so far, thus far, up to then.

ebullio : to boil up, bubble up, to appear, produce in abundance.

ecclesia : church.

econtra : the same as contra: against, opposite, etc.

ecquando : at any time? ever?

edico : to announce, declare.

editio : the publishing of a book, an announcement.

edo : put forth, give out.

edo edi essum : to eat, consume, devour, waste.

edoceo : to inform fully, instruct thoroughly.

educo : to draw out, lead out, march out/bring up, rear/ sue.

effectus : doing, execution, performance, effect, result.

effero extuli elatum : to carry out, bury, lift up, exalt.

effervo : to boil up.

efficio : to do, produce, effect, make/ bring about, cause /prove.

effringo effrego : break, break open.

effugio : (effugi effugiturus ) flee from, escape, elude, run away.

effundo : to pour out, pour forth, shed, utter.

egenus : in want of, in need of, destitute.

egeo : to need, lack, want, be without.

ego : I ; I can't live without you, baby.

egredior : (egressus ) to go out, leave, depart, exit.

eicio eiectum : to throw out, eject, drive out.

elatus : puff-up, proud of oneself, arrogant.

electus : chosen, select.

elementum : first principle, element, basic constituent.

elemosina : alms

elemosinarius : almoner, person in charge of providing charity.

eligo : to pick out, select, choose.

eloquens : eloquent, persuasive, fluent.

eloquentia : eloquence, readiness of speech, fluency, persuasiveness.

eluo : to wash out, rinse cleanse /squander, waste.

eluvies : a flowing over, flood, innundation.

eluvio : inundation.

emanio : to flow out, spread /arise, emanate, originate.

emendo : to amend, correct

emercor : to buy up.

emerio : to obtain by service, earn completely, deserve well.

emineo : to stand out, project, be remarkable, conspicuous.

eminor : to threaten, menace.

eminus : at a distance, from a distance.

emiror : to wonder at exceedingly.

emo emi emptum : to buy, purchase.

emoveo : to move away, remove, take away.

emptio : a buying, a purchase.

enim : for, in fact, truly (may often be omitted)

enumero : to count, count up, enumerate.

eo ire itum : to go, advance, proceed, travel, move along, progress.

episcopalis : episcopal

episcopus : bishop

epistula : letter, epistle, missive, message.

epulo : sumptuous food, banquet, feast.

epulor : to feast, feast on.

eques equitis : horseman, cavalry man rider (classical).

equidem : (adv) indeed, truly, for my part.

equitatus : cavalry, horsemen (classical).

equus : horse, steed, mount.

erepo : to creep out, creep over, creep up.

erga : (+ acc.) toward, about.

ergo : (gen. +) on account of, because of.

ergo : (adv.) accordingly, then, therefore.

eripio : (eripui ereptum ) to snatch away, take away, rescue.

erogo : to pay out.

erogo : to pay out, expend, disburse.

erro : to wander, stray, rove / be mistaken, err, go astray.

error : error, mistake, going astray.

erubesco : to blush, grow red, be ashamed.

erubesco : (+ inf.) to blush to, (+acc.) blush for, respect.

erudio : to instruct, teach, educate.

eruo : to dig up, pull out / raze, demolish.

esurio : to be hungry, to hunger.

et ... et : both ... and.

etenim : for indeed.

etiam : (adv.) even, also.

etsi : (acsi) even if, although.

evenio : to come to pass, happen, befall.

eventus : consequence, issue, result, occurrence, experience.

everto : to turn out, eject, dislodge, overturn / destroy, ruin.

evito : to shuun, avoid; also, to kill.

evoco : to draw out, draw on, produce, recall to the colors.

ex : (= e ) (prep. + abl.) out of, from within, from / on account of.

exaequo exequo : to be like, equal/ make level or even, relate.

excedo : (trans.) to exceed, leave, pass beyond.

excellentia : excellence, merit, worth.

excessum : departure, death, digression.

excipio : (excepi exceptum ) to take out, except /take, capture.

excito : call forth, bring about, wake, raise up.

exclamo : to shout, cry aloud, exclaim, call someone by name.

excludo : to shut out, exclude.

excolo : to honor (a deity), polish, adorn, refine, serve.

excrucio : to torment, torture, cause great pain.

excusatio : excuse.

excuso : to exempt from blame, excuse, make excuses, plead.

exemplar : model, pattern, original, prototype, book to copy.

exemplum : pattern, model, example .

exerceo : to train, cultivate, keep at work, exercise, practice.

exercitus : army.

exertus : tested, tried, approved, experienced.

exesto : extra esto.

exheredo : to disinherit.

exheres : disinherited.

exhibeo exibeo : to produce, show, display, offer, allow, cause.

exhibeo : to show, present, allow, display, present, offer.

exhilaro : to make cheerful.

exhorresco : to be horrified, to shake, shudder /dread, tremble at.

exigo : drive out, force out, exact, demand, sell.

exigo : complete, finish, determine, decide, settle.

exilis : thin, slender, meager.

eximietate : uncommonness, excellence.

eximius : extraordinary, excellent, fine, superb.

eximo : to free, release, take out, remove, waste.

exinde : thence, next/ thereupon, after that, then/accordingly.

exitiabilis exitialis exitosus : fatal deadly, destructive, lethal.

exitium : destruction, ruin.

exitus : going out, going forth, exit, end, finish.

exordium : the beginning (especially of a speech).

exorior : to rise, spring up, issue, appear, come forward.

exoro : to prevail upon a person, entreat successfully.

exorsus : begun.

expedio : to release, set free, clear, set straight.

expedio : to free from a snare, disentangle, set free, ready.

expello (expuli expulsum ) : to drive out, expel, force out, banish.

experior (experiri, expertus ) : to try, test, experience, prove.

expers : wanting, destitute of, not sharing in.

expetens : desirous, eager.

expeto : to fall upon.

expeto : to demand, require / desire, strive after, make for.

expilatio : plundering, taking booty.

expiscor : to fish out, find out, discover.

expleo : to make losses good/ fulfil, discharge (duties).

expleo explevi expletum : to fill, fill up, complete, finish.

expletio : satifying.

expletus : (part.) perfect, complete.

explicatus: explanation, exposition.

explico : to unfold, unroll, disentangle / explain, expound.

expono (exposui expositum ) : to set forth, explain, expose.

expositus : open, accessible, exposed.

expostulo : to demand earnestly / to make a claim.

expugno : to capture, overcome, subdue, take by storm, gain.

exquisitus : sought after, exquisite,excellent, fine, delicate.

exsequor exequor : to follow to the grave, follow to the end.

exsequor : to maintain, keep up, carry out, fulfill, accomplish.

exsequor : to execute, avenge, punish /relate, describe, explain.

exsertus exertus : project, thrust forward.

exsilium : exile, banishment.

exspecto : to look for, expect, await, wait for.

exstinguo, exstingui, exstinctum : to extinguish, put out.

exsto : to stand out, be extant, appear, project, show itself.

externus : outer, foreign, outside, external.

extollo : to praise exaggerate /decorate, adorn.

extollo : to lift up, raise up, erect /elevate, exalt.

extorqueo : to twist, wrench, dislocate /extort by force.

extra : (prep. + acc.) beyond, outside.

extremus : outermost, last, extreme.

exturbo : to drive away, thrust out.

exulto : to exult, be joyful.

exuro, exussum : burn down, burn, set on fire.

exustio : burning up, conflagration.


fabula : fable, story, tale, play.

facile : easily.

facilis : easy, agreeable, affable, pleasant.

facillimus : easiest, most agreeable, pleasantest

facina -oris : bad deed, crime, villainy/ deed, action.

facio : to sacrifice, suit, help, be of service.

facio : to give permission/ to experience, suffer (troubles).

facio : (trans.) to make, do, act, perform, cause, bring about.

factum : deed, accomplishment, work, act, achievement.

facultas : power, means, opportunity, capacity, ability, stock. facundia :

facultas : feasibility, opportunity, resources., abundance.

facunditas : fertility, qickness or readiness of speech.

faenum fenum : hay.

falsus : false, deceptive.

fama : talk, report, rumor, tradition.

familia : family, household.

familiaris : belonging to a household / friendly, intimate.

famulatus : servitude, slavery, service.

famulus : servant.

fas est :: it is right, it is fitting, it is lawful.

fas : divine law or command/ fate, destiny/ lawful, allowed.

fateor : to confess, admit, allow, reveal, make known.

fatigo : worry, fatigue, vex, harass, tease.

fatum : fate, destiny, doom, lot, weird.

fautor : favorer, promoter, patron, partisan, supporter.

faveo : (+ inf.) To be inclined to do.

faveo : (+ dat.) be favorable to, aid, support, help.

fawning like that of a dog, cringing flattery.

feculentia : dregs, lees, impurities, filth.

fefello : to be failed by, disappointed by something. Heremann, p. 278.

feliciter : happily.

felix felicis : lucky, fortunate, happy.

femina : woman

fenestra : window.

fere : almost, near;y, not quite, generally.

feretrum : bier, litter.

feritas : wildness, savageness.

ferme, fere : almost, about.

fero tuli latum : to carry, bring, tell, relate, and much else.

ferrum : iron, sword.

ferus : fierce, wild, savage, untamed.

festinatio : speed, haste.

festino : to hasten, hurry, speed.

festinus : hastening, hasty.

feteo : to have a bad ordor, stink.

ficus : fig tree.

fidelis : faithful, loyal, true

fidelitas : fidelity, loyalty, homage.

fidens : confident, without fear, courageous.

fides : trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith.

fides : promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement.

fiducia : confidence, trust, assurance.

filia : daughter

filius : son

fimus : dung, dirt, filth, manure.

fines finium : boundaries, limits, /territory.

finis : end, limit, boundary, purpose.

finitimus finitumus : neighboring, adjacent, related to, similar.

fio, fieri, factus : be made, be done, become.

firmo : to assert, maintain/ strengthen, make firm / encourage.

firmus : firm, strong, reliable, solid.

flamma : flame, fire.

flatus : blowing, blast, breathing, arrogance, haughtiness.

flax, falcis : sickle, bill-hook, pruning hook.

fleo : to weep, cry, shed tears, sob.

fluctus : billow, wave.

flumen : river.

fluo : to flow, pour, stream.

fodio : to prick, sting, jab.

fore, forem : future infinitive of sum.

forensis, e : legal.

forma: forma, shape, beauty.

formica : ant.

formo : to shape, form, fashion.

fors fortis : chance, luck, fortune.

forsit forsan forsitan : perhaps, probably.

fortasse : perhaps.

forte : by chance, by luck, accidentally.

fortis : strong, brave.

fortiter : strongly, bravely.

fortitudo : physical strength, courage, moral bravery.

fortuna : fortune, luck, fate, chance.

fortunate : fortunately.

fortunatus : fortunate, lucky, happy.

forum : market place, town square.

foveo fovi fotum : to cherish.

frango (fracta) : to break in pieces, shatter.

frater : brother.

frendo : to gnash one's teeth, bruise, crush, grind.

frendo : gnash the teeth, crush, bruise, grind.

frequentatio : frequency, crowding.

frequentia : a large concourse, population, numerous assembly.

frequento : to crowd, collect in large number, visit.

frigus : cold, coolness, cold of winter /dullness, indolence.

frons : forehead, brow, front.

fructuarius : fruitful, fertile.

fructus fructus : fruit, profit, enjoyment, produce.

frugalitas : frugality, economy, pinching pennies.

frumentum : grain.

fruor : to have the benefit of, to enjoy.

frustra esse : to be deceived, to be mistaken.

frustra : in vain, mistakenly, wantonly, without reason.

frux, frugi : fruits of the earth.

fuga : flight, escape,

fugio : to flee, escape, runa aaway /avoid, shun.

fugitivus : fugitive : deserter, runaway slave.

fugo : to put to flight, chase away, drive into exile, pursue.

fulcio : to support, strengthen, uphold/ to besiege, oppress.

fulgeo (fulsi ): to flash, shine, beam.

fultus : supporter.

fundo : to pour, pour out (like molten metal), melt, cast.

fundo : (milit.) to rout, scatter, defeat, put to flight.

fungor, fungi, functus : to occupy oneself, perform, do, execute.

funis -is : rope, cord, line.

furibundus, raging, furious / inspired.

furor : madness, rage, frenzy.

furs : thief.

furtificus : thievish.

furtim : by stealth, stealthily.

furtum : theft, robbery/ furta : stolen property /trick, deceit.

fusus : (from fundo) spread out, extended, wide, copious.


galea : helmet.

Gandavum : Ghent.

gaudium : joy, delight, happiness.

Gemblacensis : Gembloux.

gemo : to sigh, groan, wail.

gens : clan, race, nation, people, tribe.

genus : kind, sort, class, category.

gero : to carry, bear, wear /bear, give birth to /to carry about.

gesto : to carry, bear about.

gestum (gero) : carrying about, conduct (oneself).

gestum (gero) : carriage, bearing / having borne.

gigno (genuit) : to bring forth, bear, beget, father.

glacialis : icy, frozen, full of ice.

gladius : sword.

gloria : fame, renown, glory.

glorior : to glory, boast, pride oneself.

grando, onis : hailstorm.

grassor : go about, go ahead, proceed, attack.

gratia agere : (+ dat.) to thank.

gratia : gratitude, favor.

gratia : in order to, for the sake of, to.

gratia : (in the abl.) on account of.

gratulor : to wish a person joy, congratulate (+dat.),give thanks

gratus : pleasing, agreeable /grateful.

gravatus : sick, oppressed, ill.

gravis : heavy, weighty, serious, important /severe, grievous.

gravitas : weight, seriousness, dignity, importance.

graviter : heavily, seriously.

gravo : to oppress, burden, make suffer.

gregatim : in troops, or crowds.

gregatim : adv., In flocks, herds, troops, crowds.

gusto : to taste.


habeo habui habitum : to have, hold, possess /consider, regard.

habitus : disposed, in a certain condition.

hac : this side, this way, here.

hac : (fem. sing. abl.) He who lives BY THIS (the sword),...

hactenus : hitherto, up to this point, so far.

hae he : (fem. plur. nom) THESE (speeches) were very fine.

haec hec : (fem. sing. nom.) THIS (sword) is more expensive.

haec hec (neut. plur. nom.) THESE (kisses) are sweeter than wine.

haec hec : (neut. plur. acc.) Deborah always won THESE (wars).

hanc : (fem. sing. acc.) She wasted THIS (her youth).

harum : (fem. plur. gen.) The city wall had four OF THESE (gates).

has : (fem. plur. acc.) They gave THESE (their lives) for the Faith.

Hasnonium : Hasnon.

haud : no, not at all, by no means.

Helcim : Helchin on the left bank of the Scheldt.

Helnonensis : Elnon. Herimann, p. 279.

Heniis Harniis : Hames.

hereditas : inheritance, often simply "property."

hesito (haesito) : to be unsure, uncertain, wavering.

hi : (masc. plur. nom.) THESE (men) are loyal to the king.

hic : (adv.) here.

hic haec (hec ) hoc : this, the latter /he, she, it.

hic : (masc. nom. sing.) THIS (house) is filthy.

hilaris : cheerful, merry, gay.

hinc : from this place, hence.

his : (masc. plur. abl.) They passed BY THESE (roads).

his : (masc. plur. dat.) Tell it TO THESE (policemen).

his : (fem. plur. dat.) She gave her property TO THESE (churches).

his : (fem. plur. abl) A life is enriched BY THESE (friendships).

his : (neut. plur. dat.) Listen TO THESE (orders).

his : (neut. plur. abl.) She earned it BY THESE (her deeds).

hoc : (masc. sing. abl.) He gave plenty FOR THIS (field).

hoc : (neut. sing. nom.) THIS (monastery) is well-built.

hoc : (neut. sing. abl.) Do not hesistate BECAUSE OF THIS! (doubt)

hoc : (neut. sing. acc.) Break THIS! (fetter)

hodie : today.

hodiernus : of today.

Hoienses : huy, belgium, between liege and namur.

homo hominis : human being, man.

honor : honor, esteem, public office.

honorabilis : respectful.

hora : hour, time.

hordeum, ordeum : barley.

horrendus : horrible, dreadful.

hortor : exhort, incite, encourage.

hortus ortus : garden / pl. grounds, park.

horum : (masc. plur. gen.) The horses OF THESE (soldiers) are spent.

horum : (neut. plur. gen) The cattle OF THESE (monsters) were fat.

hos : (masc. plur. acc.) They burned THESE (houses) to the ground.

hospes : guest, host, stranger.

hostes hostium : the enemy.

hostis : an enemy of the state.

huic : (neut sing. dat.) i'd give my right arm FOR THiS (cooky).

huic : (masc. sing. dat.) He sent FOR THIS (doctor).

huic : (fem sing. dat.) There is a statue IN THIS (abbey).

huius : (masc. fem. neut. gen. sing.) Go ahead, eat some OF THIS.

huius : (neut. sing. gen.) She paid half OF THIS (the cost).

huius : (fem. sing. gen.) They are fond OF THIS (change).

humanitas : kindness, culture, refinement.

humanus : pertaining to man, humane, humane, cultured, refined.

humilis : lowly, humble.

humo : cover with earth, bury,

humus : ground, earth, soil /land, country.

hunc : (masc. sing. acc.) He ate THIS (fruit).

Hunnam : Bunna.

hypocrita : hypocrite


iaceo : to lie, lie prostrate, lie dead.

iacio : to throw, cast, hurl, lay, scatter, diffuse.

iaculator : :a thrower, javelin man, spear thrower.

iaculum : dart, javelin, short spear.

iam : now, by now, already/ presently, immediately, soon.

iam : moreover, henceforth, indeed, just, further.

ianua : door.

ibi : there

ictus : blow, bite, stroke, bolt, thrust.

idcirco : on that account, for that reason, for that purpose.

idem eadem idem : the same.

identidem : again and again, repeatedly.

ideo : for that reason, on that account, therefore.

idoneus : proper, worthy, fitting, deserving, capable.

igitur : therefore, consequently, for this reason.

ignarus : ignorant, not knowing.

ignavus : lazy, listless, inert, sluggish cowardly, a coward.

ignis : fire.

ignoro : to be ignorant of, not know /rarely: neglect, overlook.

ignosco: (+ dat.) to overlook, forgive, pardon.

ignotus : unknown, obscure, ignorant, ignoble.

ilico : on the spot, immediately.

illa : (fem. sing. nom.) THAT (sword) is more expensive.

illa : (neut. plur. acc.) Deborah always won THESE (wars).

illa : (fem. sing. abl.) He who lives BY THAT (the sword),...

illa : (neut. plur. nom.) THOSE (arms) belong to the victor.

illacrimo (+ dat.) to weep over.

illae ille : (fem. plur. nom.) THOSE (women) must die!

illarum : (fem. plur. gen.) The city wall had four OF THOSE (gates).

illas : (fem. plur. acc.) They gave THOSE (their lives) for the Faith.

illata : from infero to cause, occasion, etc.

illaturos : from infero "they would cause."

ille illa illud : that, the former, the famous /he, she, it.

ille : (masc. nom. sing.) THAT (house) is filthy.

illi : (fem sing. dat.) There is a statue IN THAT (abbey).

illi : (masc. sing. dat.) He sent FOR THAT (doctor).

illi : (masc. plur. nom.) THOSE (men) are loyal to the king.

illi : (neut sing. dat.) i'd give my right arm FOR THOSE (cookies).

illiam : (fem. sing. acc.) She wasted THAT (her youth).

illic : there, at that place, therein, in that matter.

illis : (masc. plur. dat.) Tell it TO THOSE (Marines).

illis : (fem. plur. dat.) She gave her property TO THOSE (churches).

illis : (neut. plur. abl.) She earned it BY THESE (her deeds).

illis : (fem. plur. abl) A life is enriched BY THESE (friendships).

illis : (masc. plur. abl.) They passed BY THOSE (roads).

illis : (neut. plur. dat.) Listen TO THESE (orders).

illius : (fem. sing. gen.) They are fond OF THAT (change).

illius : (neut. sing. gen.) She paid half OF THAT (the cost).

illius : (masc. fem. neut. gen. sing.) Go ahead, eat some OF THAT.

illo : (neut. sing. abl.) Do not hesitate BECAUSE OF THAT! (doubt)

illo : (masc. sing. abl.) He gave plenty FOR THAT (field).

illorum : (masc. plur. gen.) The horses OF THOSE (soldiers) are spent.

illorum : (neut. plur. gen) The cattle OF THESE (monsters) were fat.

illos : (masc. plur. acc.) They burned THOSE (houses) to the ground.

illuc : thither, to that place, to that matter, to that person.

illud : (neut. sing. nom.) THAT (monastery) is well-built.

illud : (neut. sing. acc.) Break THOSE (fetters)!

illudo illusi illusum : to mock, make fun of, ridicule

illum : (masc. sing. acc.) He ate THAT (fruit).

imago : image, likeness.

imber ymber : rain shower, rain storm, pelting rain.

imbrium : of rain.

imcomposite; adv from incompositus; incompositione in Herimann.

imitabilis : that can be imitated,

imitor : to imitate.

immanitas : savagery, frightfulness.

immerito : adv. undeservingly, without merit, unjustifiably.

immineo : to hang over, be imminent, threaten.

immo : by all means, by no means, on the contrary.

immodicus :immoderate, excessive, beyond measure.

immortalis : immortal.

immotus : unmoved.

immunda : unclean, impure, dirty, foul.

immundus : foul, impure.

impedimentum : hindrance, impediment, obstacle, difficulty.

impedio : entangle, ensnare, obstruct, surround, hinder, prevent.

impedito : a hunderance.

impedo : to entangle, ensnare, hinder, prevent, obstruct.

impello : to drive against, strike upon.

impello impuli impulsum : to set in mortion, impel, urge on.

impendeo : to hang over, threaten, menace, be imminent.

impendium L expenditures, outlay, interest on a loan.

impendo : to lay out, expand, weigh out.

impenetrabiilis : impenetrable.

impensa : expense, outlay.

imperator : commander in chief, general, emperor.

imperceptus : unperceived /unknown,

imperiosus : imperious, dominering, powerful.

imperium : power to command, authority, command, rule, control.

impero : to give orders, command /to rule, hold sway.

impetro : to get, accomplish, effect, obtain (by asking).

impetus : attack, onset, rapid motion/ impulse, passion, force.

impleo : to fill in (or up), satisfy, content, fulfil, perform.

importo : to bring in, introduce, import /bring upon, cause.

importunus : unsuitable, unfavorable, troublesome/ inconsiderate.

impraesentiarum : for the present, in present cirumstances.

imprimis : especially, particularly, specifically.

improbus : inferior, bad, wicked, persistent, perverse, bold.

improvidus : improvident, negligent, thoughtless, feckless.

improviso : unexpected/ (ex improviso) suddenly.

impudens : impudent, shameless, insolent, presumptuous.

impudenter : impudently, insolently, presumptuously.

impunitus : unpunished, unrestrained, safe.

imputo : to lay to a charge, enter in an account, impute to.

in praesentia : for the present.

in : (+ acc.) into, toward, against.

in : (+ abl.) in.

inanis : empty, vain, inane.

incassum : in vain.

inceptor : beginner.

inceptum : beginning, attempt, enterprise.

incertus : uncertain, doubtful, unsure, hesitant.

incido in mentionem : to happen to mention.

incido : to fall in or on, fall in with /happen, occur.

incipio : to take in hand, begin, commence.

incito : to excite, spur, inspire, increase /hasten, urge on.

inclino : to bend, incline, turn, change / fall back, waver.

includo : to shut in, enclose, establish a siege, surround.

inclutus/inclitus : celebrated, famous, renowned.

incola, ae : resident, inhabitant of a place.

incompositus : disorder, lack of regularity.

inconsulte : indiscreetly.

incontinencia : lack of restrain, incontinence.

incorruptus : uncorrupted, genuine, pure.

incredibilis : incredible, unbelievable.

increpare : to rebuke, chide, scold.

increpo : (of persons) to chide, rebuke.

incubo : to hang over, dwell in, lie heavily upon.

incurro : to run into, assail, attack, raid into, come upon.

Inda : Cornelism nster.

indagatio : investigation.

inde : thence, from there, for that reason, thereafter, then.

indebitus : not owed, not due.

indico : to proclaim, make publicly known, announce, disclose.

indigeo : to require, need, stand in need of.

indignatio : indignation.

indignus : unworthy, lacking in merit, unfit.

indo (past indidi) : to establish, cause, occasion.

indomitus : untamed, wild.

induco : cover, put on clothing, erase writing, revoke, anull.

induco : bring in, introduce, induce, persuade / decide.

induco indux inductum : to lead in, introduce, induce, influence.

industria : industry, diligence.

industrius : industrious, diligent, assiduous, hard-working.

indutiae : truce, armistice, suspension of hostilities.

inedicabilis : unexplainable, inexplicable.

ineptio : to play the fool, to trifle.

inexpugnabilis : impregnable, unconquerable, not to be taken by force.

infamo : to put to shame, disgrace.

infantia : infancy, babyhood.

infector : dyer.

infectum reddere : to revoke, render impossible, make voil, annull.

infectus : unworked /not done, unfinished, incomplete.

infecunditas : barrenness, sterility.

infecundus : barren, sterile.

infelicitas : bad luck, misfortune,

infeliciter : unhappily.

infelix : arbor infelix : the gallows.

infelix : unfruitful, barren, unproductive, infertile.

infenso : to attack, avenge.

infensus : hostile, agressive /(arms) aimed, ready /(spirit) dangerous.

inferi : those down below, the dead.

inferne : on the lower side, below.

infero : To carry in, put or place on.

infero : (in logic) to infer, conclude.

infero : (abstract things) : bring on, occasion, cause.

inferus : below, under, southern.

infervesco : to come to a boil, become hot.

infeste : in a hostile manner, belligerently.

infesto : to attack, disquiet.

infestus : aggressive, hostile, dangerous.

inficio infeci infectum : to poison, taint, corrupt.

inficio infeci infectum : to tinge, dye, stain, imbue.

infidelis : unfaithful, disloyal, untrue.

infidelitas : faithlessnes, disloyalty.

infideliter : faithlessly, disloyally.

infidus : untru, disloyal.

infigo : to fix, fasten /to imprint, impress.

infindo infidi infissum : to cut into.

infinitas infinitio : eternity, infinity, endlessnes.

infinitus : unlimited, infinite, without bounds, boundless, limitless.

infirmatio : weakening /refusing /invalidating.

infirme : weakly, faintly.

infirmitas : weakness, feebkeness /instability, fickleness.

infirmo : to weaken /shake /invalidate, annull

infirmus : not strong, weak, feeble /(sometimes) sick, ill.

infit : he, she, or it begins, begins to speak.

infitialis : negative, containing a no, rejection.

infitias ire : to deny.

infitior : to deny /deny a debt, refuse to return something.

inflammatio : setting afire /(people) inflaming /(souls) inspiring.

inflammo : to set on fire, inflame, to torch, kindle.

inflatio : inflation, flatulence.

inflatius : too pompous /on a grander scale.

inflatus : pompous, swollen, puffed up, inflated.

inflatus : blowing into, blast, inspiration.

inflecto : to warp /change, sway, affect.

inflecto inflexi inflectum : to bend, bow, curve.

infletus : unwept, unmourned, unlamented.

inflexio : a bendings, swaying.

inflexus : bending, curving.

infligo inflixi inflictum : to strike, hit, knock /cause damage.

inflo : to blow into /to inspire, puff up, elate.

influo influi influxum : to flow in /to rush in, steal in.

infodio infodi infossum : to dig in, bury.

informatio : concept, idea.

informis : formless, shapeless /deformed, hideous.

infortunatus : unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky.

infortunium : misfortune, bad luck /punishment.

infra inferius infimus : low down

infra : (adv.) below, underneath /to the south, in the underworld.

infra : (+ acc.) below, under /(time) later than

infula : insignia of office.

ingemuo = dat. : to groan, sigh over.

ingenium : innate character, talent, nature.

ingens : of immoderate size, vast, huge, monstrous, remarkable.

ingero : to go off to, betake oneself to, pour forth, inflict.

ingratus : ungrateful, unpleasant, disagreeable.

ingravesco : to become heavy, become a burden.

inicio inieci iniectum : to throw on, put on, don /inspire.

inimicus : personal enemy, foe, opponent.

iniquus : unequal, unjust, unfair.

initium : beginning, start, commencement, origin.

iniuria : injury, damage, hurt /injustice, wrong.

iniustus : unjust, inequitable, unfair.

innotesco, innotui : to become known.

innotesco : to become know, noted.

innuo : to give a nod to, give a sign to.

inolesco : to grow in or on.

inops : poor, helpless, in need

inquam : I say.

inquis : you say.

inquit : he, she, it says.

inrideo : to laugh at, mock, ridicule.

inritus irritus : void, invalid, in vain, useless, ineffectual.

inruo irruo : to rush in, fling in.

insania : insanity, irrationality, madness, folly.

insciens : unknowing, unaware, ignorant.

inscribo : inscribe, entitle, enlist.

insensatus : irrational.

insequor : to follow, pursue, assail, reproach, rebuke, attack.

inservio : to be a slave, serve, be devoted to.

insideo : sit upon something, be firmly placed.

insidiae : (plural) treachery, ambush, plot, conspiracy.

insinuo : to insinuate, work one's way in, intimate.

insisto : to enter upon [a journey] tread; (with d.) follow.

insolita : unaccustomed, unusual.

insolitus : unaccustomed /unusual, strange, uncommon.

insons insontis : guiltless, innocent.

insperatus : unexpected, unlooked for, unanticipated.

instanter : urgently.

instar : a form, figure, after the fashion of, like.

instigo : to goad, incite, stimulate, urge.

instituo : to establish, found, institute.

insto : to pursue eagerly, devote oneself to.

instructus (from instruo) : equipped, trained, supplied.

instructus : trained, taught.

instruo : to built in, set up, construct, furnish /train.

instruo : prepare, provide /draw up an order of battle.

Insula : Lille.

Insula : island.

insurgo insurgi insurrectum : to rise up, rebel, revolt.

integer : whole, untouched, unhurt, undamaged /complete, entire.

intellego intellexi intellectum : to understand, comprehend, see.

intempestivus: unseasonable, untimely, immoderate.

intendo : to stretch, strain, try to prove.

intendo : to extend, aim, direct, direct one's course, aim at.

intentio : effort, exertion, attention, intent / attack, accusation.

intentus : thorough, tense, anxious, strict.

inter : (+ acc.) between, among.

intercipio intercepi interceptum : to intercept

interdico : to forbid, prohibit, outlaw, gain an injunction.

interdico : to forbid, prohibit, interdict.

interdum : sometimes, now and then, at times.

intereo : to perish, die.

interficio interfeci interfectum : to kill, murder, slay.

interrogatio : interrogation, inquiry.

intro : to walk into, enter, make one's way into.

introduco : to lead in, introduce.

intueor : to look at attentively, gaze at, consider.

intumesco : to swell up, increase, swell with anger.

intumesco : to sell, sell up, sell with anger.

intus : within.

inultus : unavenged, unpunished.

invado : to undertake, go in, enter, get in.

invado : to assail, usurp, seize, attack, fall upon.

invalesco : to gather strength, become stronger.

invenio : to come upon, find, discover.

inventor : inventor, discoverer.

investigo : to track down, investigate.

inveteratus : hardened by age, of long-standing.

invetero : to give duration, to render old

invicem : one after the other, by turns, mutually, each other.

invictus : unconquer, unconquerable, undefeated.

invideo : to envy, be jealous of, look upon with envy.

invidia : envy, jealousy, hatred.

inviso : to go to see, visit, inspect, look at.

invisus : hated, hateful.

invito : to invite, summon.

invitus : unwilling, against one's will.

ioco iocor : to joke, jest, make merry.

iocus : joke, jest, jape, gag.

ipse ipsa ipsum : himself, herself, itself.

ipsemet : his own very self.

ira : anger, wrath.

irascor iratus : to be angry, to be wrathful.

iratus : angry, wrathful.

irrito : to irritate, exasperate, excite.

irritum : nothingness, worthlessness, vanity.

irritus : vain, useless, ineffectual, of not effect.

irritus : undecided, void, unfixed, of no effect.

is ea id : this, that /he, she, it.

iste ista istud : that /sometimes pejorative.

ita ut : (with subj.) in such a way that,

ita : so, thus.

ita : (in narration) and so; (with adj. or adv.) so, so very.

itaque : (adv.) and, so, therefore.

iter itineris : road, route, journey.

itero : to repeat, say again, iterate.

iterum : again, a second time, once more.

iubeo iussi iussum : to order, command.

iucunditas : pleasure, charm.

iucundus : agreeable, pleasant, gratifying.

iudex : judge, juror.

iudicium : judgment, decision, opinion, trial

iudico : to judge, consider

iugis, e : perpetual, continuous.

iugis iuge : perpetual, continuous.

iumentum : beast of burden.

iungo iunxi iunctum : to join

iuro : to swear, to make an oath.

ius iurandum iuris iurandi etc. : oath.

ius iuris : justice, law, right.

iussu : (abl.) at the command of, by order of.

iustus : just, right, equitable.

iuvo : to help, aid, assist /to please.

iuxta : just short of.

iuxta : close by, near/ in like manner, equally.

iuxta : (+ acc.) close to, near to/ (time) just before.


jaculum : dart, javelin.

judicium : trial, legal investigation, judgement, decision.

jugis : adj. continual, ceaseless, perennial, constant.

jugiter : continually, perpetually, constantly / instantly.

jumentum : draft animal.

juvenis : young man, youth.

juventus : the age of youth (20-40 years).


labefacio labefeci labefactum : to shake, loesen /impair.

labefacto : to weaken, disturb /shake violently.

labellum : a little lip /a small washing vessel.

labes labis : stain, blemish, disgrace, infamy /misfortune.

labia labium :lip (labiae : lips).

labiosus : having large lips.

labo : to totter, sink, begin to fall.

labor : hardip, fatigue, distress.

labor laboris : labor, work, toil

labor lapsus : to slip, glide, slide.

labores solis : eclipse of the sun.

laboriose : laboriously, with great effort

laboriosus : toilsome, laborious /(persons) industrious, toiling.

laboro : (intrans.) to work, toil, suffer, be afflicted, be troubled.

laboro : (trans.) work out, prepare, arrange, form, elaborate.

labrum : lip, edge, rim /bathing tub.

labrusca : wild grape vine.

labruscum : the wild grape.

lac lactis : milk.

lacer : torn, mangled, cut to pieces.

laceratio : a tearing, mangling.

lacero : to tear to pieces, mangle /squander money /slander someone.

lacerta : lizard.

lacertosus : muscular, powerful.

lacertus : the upper arm /strength.

lacesso : to harass, attack.

lacrima Heliandum : amber.

lacrima : tears /exudations from some plants.

lacrimabilis : lamentable, deplorable, woeful.

lacrimo : to weep, shed tears /exude, drip.

lacrimosus : tearful, mournful, shedding tears,

lactans : giving milk.

lactatio : enticement, come-on.

lacteus : milky, of milk, milk-white.

lacteus : of milk, milky, milk-white.

lacto : to allure, entice, wheedle.

lactuca : lettuce.

lacuna : missing letters, words, or phrases in a manuscript.

lacuna : a hole, empty space /pond, pool /deficiency, loss.

lacunar : panelled ceiling.

lacus : a hollow /lake, pool, pond, troough, tank, tub.

laedo ledo : strike, hit, hurt, damage, offend, annoy, violate.

laesio lesio : rhetorical attack /wounding.

laetabilis letabilis : joyous, glad.

laetans : rejoicing, joyous.

laetatio letatio : rejoicing, joy.

laetifico letifico : to fertilize /cheer, galdden, delight.

laetificus letificus : gladdening, joyous, spreading happiness.

laetitia letitia : fertility /richness, grace /joy, delight.

laeto leto : to cheer, gladden, make joyful.

laetor letor : to rejoice, be joyful.

laeve leve : left-handedly, awkwardly.

laevus levus : foolish, silly /unlucky, unpropitious.

laevus levus : the left hand, left side, left-handed.

laganum : a cake.

lama : bog, slough.

lambo : to lick /(of rivers) to wash.

lamenta (neut. pl) : weeping, wailing.

lamentabilis : lamentable, mournful.

lamentatio : weeping, wailing, lamenting.

lamentor : to weep, wail, lament /(trans.) to bewail.

lamia : witch, vampire.

lamnia lammina lamna : sheet of metal, coin, knife blade, nutshell.

lapsus : fall, fault, error, sliding, graduate movement.

laqueum : noose, halter, snare, trap.

laqueus : snare, trap, noose.

largior : lavish, bestow, grant, give abindantly.

lascivio : to run riot, play, be wanton.

lasesco : to become tired, grow weary.

latus -eris : sides, flank / lungs /

laudator : praiser.

laudo : to praise, extoll, commend /name, mention, cite, quote.

Laudunum : Laon.

laus : praise, glory, fame.

lebes : copper kettle, basin, cauldron.

lectica : litter, bier.

lector : reader.

lectus : bed.

legatarius : legatee.

legatus : deputy, ambassador, envoy,

legens legentis : a reader.

legio : legion

lego : to gather, choose, collect, pass through, read,

lemiscus : a ribbon.

lemma : theme, title, epigram.

lemures : (pl. only) ghosts, phantoms.

lenimentus : alleviation, impreovement, mitigation.

lenio : to mitigate, relieve, make better.

lenis : smooth /gentle, kind, mild.

lenitas lenitudo : smoothness, gentleness, mildness.

leno : procurer, go-between.

lenocinium : enticement, allurement.

lenocinor : to pander, flatter, make up to /to promote, advance.

lens lentis : lentil.

lente : slowly, calmly, cooly, deliberately.

lentesco : to become soft, flexible, sticky /to weaken, slacken.

lentitudo : slowness, apathy, sluggishness.

lento : to bend.

lentulus : rather slow, a little slow.

lentus : lethargic, inactive /slow, lingering.

lentus : tough, resistant, tenacious /supple, pliant /

Leo : lion.

Leodie : Liege.

lepide : charminly, wittily, elegantly, pleasantly.

lepidus : charming, witty, pleasant, elegant.

lepor lepos : charm, wit, elegance.

lepus : hare, rabbit.

Lesciense, monastery of : Liessies.

letalis : mortal, deadly, fatal.

letaliter : mortally, fatally.

letanie : litany

lethargus : drowsiness, apathy, sleepiness, coma.

letifer : deadly, mortal.

leto : to kill, slay.

letum : death, ruin, annihilation.

levamen : alleviation, mitigation, solace, refreshment.

levamentum : comfort, easing, alleviation, consolation.

levatio : alleviation, mitigation, solace.

leviculus : empty-headed, vain, silly.

levidensis : thin, slight, poor.

levis : rapid, swift /unimpotant /fickle, inconstant /unstable.

levis : light, slight, trivial /beardless, bald /light-armed.

levitas : lightness, levity /fickleness, inconstancy /groundlesness.

leviter : lightly, softly, slightly.

levo : to smooth, polish.

levo : to raise, lift up /relieve, ease /diminish, weaken, impair.

lex legis : law, statute /covenant, agreement

libatio : libation.

libellus : little book.

libenter : willingly, with pleasure.

liber : child, offspring.

liber libri : book.

liber libera, liberum : free, independent, unrestricted.

liberalis : courteous, generous, gentlemanly.

liberalitas : courtesy, kindness, generousity /a grant.

liberaliter : courteously, generously, honorably.

liberatio : release, liberation, aquittal, setting free.

libere : freely, openly, frankly.

libero : to liberate, set free.

libero : to lift (an obstacle), raise.

libero : to set free, deliver, liberate, release /exempt

libertas : freedom, liberty, independence / frankness, candor.

libido : whim, caprice, violent desire, passionate longing.

licet : granted that, although / it is allowed, one may or can.

licet : (as conj.) granted that, although.

ligo : to bind, tie.

lima : file, polishing, revision.

limen, limina : threshold.

lingua : language, tongue, speech.

lino : to smear, befoul, dirty.

linteum : linnen, napkin.

liquidus : fluid, flowing, liquid / clear, evident, certain.

litigo : to quarrel, dispute.

littera : letter (of the alphabet).

litterae : (pl.) letter, epistle, missive, note /literature.

loci : (pl.) passages in literary works.

loco : to place, put, position.

locupleto : to enrich, make wealthy.

locus : place, location, situation, spot.

loginquitas : distance, remoteness, isolation.

longe lateque : far and wide.

longe : far.

longus : long

loquax loquacis : talkative, loquacious, garrulous.

loquor locutus : to say, speak, tell.

loricatus : wearing armor, armored.

lubricus : oily, slippery, slick.

lucerna : lamp.

lucror : to gain, profit, win.

lucrosus : profitable, gainful.

lucrum : gain, profit.

luctisonus : sad-sounding, mournful, baleful.

luctus : lamentation, mourning, grief.

ludio ludius : actor, player

ludo lusi lusum : to play, sport /imitate, banter /delude, deceive.

ludus : game, sport, school.

lues : plague, pestilence, calamity.

lugeo : to mourn, be in mourning, grieve/(tans,) to lament, bewail.

luna : moon.

lupus : wolf.

Lutosensis : Leuze.

lux lucis : light.

luxuria : luxury, extravagance, opulence.


macellarius : butcher, slaughter-house.

macer : thin, lean.

macero : to soften, weaken, reduce, torment.

macies : thiness, gauntness /poverty barrenness

macresco : to become lean, skinny, thin.

mactabilis : deadly, lethal.

macto : to magnify, glorify, honor /slay, fight, punish, afflict.

macula : stain, mark, spot/ belmish, fault, flaw.

maculo : to stain, blemish, defile, pollute.

maculosus : spotted, speckled, poluted.

madesco : to get wet.

madide : drunkenly.

madidus : wet, moist, soaked, boiled, soft, drunk, dyed, steeped.

mador : wetness, moisture.

maero : to grieve, sorrow.

maeror meror : mourning, grief, sorrow.

magis : more, to a greater extent, rather, for preference

magister : master, canon / master of a school, professor.

magnopere magnus opere : very, very much.

magnus maior maximus : large, great, important.

magus : magical.

maiestas : majesty, dignity, greatness.

maiores : (pl.) ancestors.

Malbodiensis : Maubeuge.

male peius pessime : badly, ill, wrongly.

malens : preferring.

Malmundarium : Malmedy.

malo mallui malus : to choose, prefer.

malum : evil, misfortune, misdeed, crime, injury, damage.

malus peior pessimus : bad, wicked, evil.

mancipo mancepo : to sell formally, turn over, give into charge.

mancipo : to sell formally, give up.

mandatum : order, decree, mandate, instruction.

mando : to commit, entrust, order, command.

mane : morning, early in the morning, early.

manentia : permanency.

maneo : to remain, stay, stay the night, last, endure, abide by.

mansuetus : mild, soft, gentle.

manus manus : hand, band, handwriting.

Marceniense : Marchiennes,

Marcieniensis : Marchiennes.

mare maris : sea.

maritus : husband.

mater matris : mother.

matera, mairia : ?vat, for the fermentation of beer.

materia : material, substance, matter.

matertera : maternal aunt.

matrimonium : marriage.

maxime : greatly, exceedingly, to the highest degree, very.

maxime : especially, particularly, principally.

me : (acc.) me /that old black magic has ME in its spell.

me : (abl.) me /you'll do fine with ME, baby.

medicus : doctor, physician.

mediocris : ordinary, average, fair, moderate, mediocre.

meditor meditatus : to reflect upon, consider, ponder /practice.

medius : middle, the middle of.

mei : my, mine /MY heart belongs to daddy. that old gang of MINE.

mel mellis : honey.

melior : better.

mellitus : honeyed, sweet as honey.

membrana : thin skin, film, parchment, membrane, prepared skin.

memini meminisse : to remember.

memor : mindful, remembering, grateful, thoughful, prudent.

memoratus : mentioned.

memoria : memory, remembrance, recall, recollection.

Menapiorum :

mendosus : faulty, full of faults.

mens mentis : mind, thought, intention, intellect.

mensa : table.

mensis mensis : month.

merces mercedis : pay, reward, recompense, compensation.

mereo, mereor : deserve, earn, be entitled to, merit.

mereo : deserve, gain, obtain, serve as a soldier.

meretrix meretricis : prostitute, whore, harlot.

meridianus : midday, afternoon, south.

mestitia : misfortune?

Metim : Metz.

metuo : to fear, dread, be frightened.

metus : fear, dread, anxiety.

meus : my.

mica : crumb, morsel, grain.

mihi : (dat.) me /give ME land, lots of land.

miles militis : soldier, warrior, knight.

milia : (pl.) thousands.

militaris -e : of a soldier, military, martial.

mille : a thousand.

millies milies : a thousand times.

minime : in the least degree, very little/not at all, by no means

minimus : least, smallest, slightest.

ministro : to serve, wait upon, provide, supply.

ministro : to attend, wait upon, assist.

minor : smaller, less, slighter.

minuo minui minutum : To less, diminish, decrease, grow smaller.

mire : wonderfully, mervellously, uncommonly.

miro : to wonder.

miror : to marvel at, admire, wonder.

mirus : wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary.

misceo miscui mixtum : to mix, mingle, blend.

miser : wretched, unfortunate, miserable.

misere : wretchedly, miserably.

misereo, misereor : to pity.

misericordia : pity, mercy.

missa : holy mass

mitesco : to grow mild, ameliorate.

mitigo : to make mild or ripe, make smooth, pacify, appease.

mitis : mild, gentle /ripe, mature.

mitto misi missum : to send, dispatch.

modestus : orderly, within bounds, moderate, restrained.

modica : moderate, within bounds, limited, undistinguished.

modicus : ordinary, undistinguished, within bounds.

modio : a grain measure, a bushel basket.

modo : now, just now, only.

modus : measure, bound, limit /manner, method, mode, way.

Moguntienses : Mainz.

moleste : take annoyance/ moleste fero I take annoyance.

molestia : annoyalce, troublesomeness /stiffness, affectation.

molestus : troublesome, disagreeable, annoying.

molior : to build, erect, construct, contrive, toil, struggle.

mollio : to soften, make pliant.

mollis : adj. soft, pliant, flexible, easily moved, gentle.

monachus : monk.

Monasteriense : M nster.

monasterium : monastery, abbey, convent.

moneo : to warn, admonish, remind, advise, instruct.

monitio : admonition, warning.

mons montis : mountain, mount.

monstro : to show, appoint, point out, ordain.

monstrum : portent, omen, monster.

Montensem : Mons.

mora : delay

moratlis : mortal.

morbus : sickness, disease, illness.

mores, morium : ways, conduct, character, morals.

morior : to die, wither away, decay.

mors mortis : death.

morsus : a biting, bite, also, sting, pain.

mortifera : deadly things

mortuus : dead, deceased, passed away, gone West, departed.

mos moris : will, inclination/ custom, wont, usage, rule.

moveo moti motum : to move, arouse, affect, influence.

mox : soon, presently, then, thereupon.

mucro : a sharp point, edge, dagger point.

mugio : to groan, bellow, roar, low.

mulier : woman.

multi : many, numerous /the common herd.

multo : by much, by far, by a great deal, by a lot.

multum : much, greatly.

multus : ne multus : briefly, in brief.

multus : much, great

multus plus plurimum : much, a lot.

mundo : to clean.

mundus : world, universe.

mundus : clean, neat, elegant.

munero/munerior : to give, present.

munimentum : fortification, protection, defenses.

munio : to fortify, defend, protect /build a road.

munitio : fortifying, defense works, bridging, fortification.

munus muneris : service, office, function, duty /gift.

mus muris : mouse.

mussito : to grumble, mutter.

mutatio : change, alteration, transformation.

muto : to change, alter /exchange.

muto : punish, fine, mulct.

mutuo : borrowed, lend,

mutuus : interchanged, mutually, reciprocal / reciprocity.

mutuus : a loan. dare mutuum : to make a loan.


nam : namque : (conj.) for.

Namucense : Namur.

narro : to make known, say, speak, narrate.

nascor nasci natus : to be born, spring forth.

natalis natalis : birthday.

natio : nation, people.

natura : nature

nauta : sailor.

navigatio : voyage, navigation.

navigo : to sail, navigate.

navis navis : ship, vessel, boat.

ne ... quidem : not ... even.

ne : (conj.) that ... not, in order that ... not, in order not to.

necdum (neque dum) : and not yet.

necessarius : necessary, needed, essential.

necesse : (adj.) necessary, unavoidable, indispensable.

necne : or not.

neco : to kill, slay, put to death.

nefas : wrong, sin.

nego : to deny.

negotium : employment, business, task, occupation, pains.

nemo : no one, nobody.

neo : to spin, interweave. (to spin thread and yarn).

nepos nepotis : grandson.

nequam : worthless, good for nothing, bad.

nequaquam : by no means, not at all.

neque ... neque : neither ... nor.

neque nec : and not, nor.

nequeo : not to be able, to be impossible.

nequitia nequities : worthlessness, badness, wickedness.

nescio : to be ignorant, be unaware, not know, be unkowing.

nichilominus : nevertheless.

nidor : vapor, smell, reek, odor.

niger : black.

nihil : (undeclinable) nothing

nihilum : nothing.

nimirum : of course, undoubtedly, certainly (sometimes ironical).

nimis : (adv.) too much, overmuch, excessively

nimium : (adv.) too much, overmuch, excessively.

nisi : if not, unless, except.

niteo : to shine, glitter, be bright, glow, be sleek, flourish.

nitesco : to begin to shine, grow sleek.

nitor : to strive, exert oneself, make an effort, persevere.

nitor : to rest, lean, support oneself / trust in, depend upon.

nitor : brillance, brightness, glow, elegance, splendor.

Nivellensem : Nivelles, city and monastery.

niveus : white, snowy.

no: (nare, navi) to swim, float, fly, sail.

nobis : (abl.) us /there'll be no one as happy as US.

nobis : (dat.) us /the world belongs to US.

nocens : bad, wicked, injurious, culpable, evil.

noceo : (+ dat.) to do harm to, inflict injury, hurt.

nolo, nolle, nolui : to be unwilling, wish not to, refuse.

nomen : name /nomen Romanorum: Roman power.

nominatim : by name, expressly.

nomine tenus : nominally, in name.

nomine tenus nominetenus : as far as the meaning of the word extends.

non : not.

nondum : not yet

nonnisi : not? not unless? Herimann, cap. 34.

nonnullus : some /pl. several.

nonnumquam : sometimes.

nonus : ninth.

nos : we /WE live and die by that creed.

nos : us /they tried to tell US we're too young.

nosco : to become acquainted with, get to know.

noster nostra nostrum : our, ours.

noster nostri : our ours /OUR hearts beat as one.

noster nostri : our ours /that old dream of OURS

nota : mark, token, note, sign.

notarius : stenographer (class.), notary, legal scribe.

novem : nine.

novitas : newness, novelty, strangeness.

novo : to make anew, refresh, revive, change, alter, invent.

novus : novel, unusual, extraordinary /news, novelty, a new thing

novus : new, fresh, young, inexperienced, revived, refreshed.

nox noctis : night.

nullus : not any, no, none.

numerus : total, category, class, number.

numquam : adv. at no time, never.

nunc quidem : at one time...then.

nunc : now, at the present time.

nunquam : never.

nuntio : to announce, report, relate.

nuntius : messenger, message.

nuper : newly, recently, not long ago.

nusquam esse : not to exist.

nusquam : nowhere, in no place, nothing, for nothing, never.

nutrimens : food, nourishment.

nutrimentus : nourishment.

nutrio : to suckle, nourish, bring up, rear.

nutus : a nodding, nod, command, will.

nutus : a nod, command, will / gravitation, movement down.


obdormio : to fall asleep.

obduro : to be hard, persist, endure, last, hold out.

obicio obieci obiectum : to offer, throw in someone's teeth.

obligatus : bound, under an obligation.

obliquo : to turn sideways, turn aside.

oblittero : to cancel, blot out.

oblivio : forgetfulness, oblivion.

obruo : to overwhelm, destroy.

obsequium : indulgence, pliancy, submission.

obstinatus : firm, resolved, staunch.

obtestor : to implore, entreat, beg, call as a witness.

obtineo : to hold, keep, possess, maintain /to continue.

obviam ire : (+ dat.) to go to meet, oppose /help, remedy.

obviam : on the way, in the way /(+ dat.) towards, against.

obvius : on the way, in the way / (in dat.) open, accessible.

occasio : favorable moment, opportunity.

occido occidi occasum : to fall, fall down, (for the sun) to set.

occulto : secretly.

occupo : to take possession, grasp, seize, enjoy, get a start on.

occurro : to fall upon, attack, work against, counteract.

occursus : meeting, falling in, running into each other.

ocius : quick. fleet, sooner, faster.

oculus : eye.

odio : to hate, despite, hold in contempt, dislike strongly.

odium : hatred.

offensio : striking, knocking, hitting against, blow.

offero : to bring forward, place before, present, offer, expose.

officina : workshop, factor.

officium : duty, service, job.

olim : at that time, formerly, once, for a long time now.

omitto : to omit, leave out /let go.

omnigenus : of all kinds.

omnino : altogether, entirely, wholly, certainly, completely.

omnipotens : all-powerful, almighty, omnipotent

omnis : all, every.

onero : to load, burden, oppress, fil up.

onus : load, burden, weight, trouble / charge, public road tax.

opera : work, pains, labor.

operor : to work, labor, toil, take pains.

opes : (pl.) means, wealth, abundance, riches, resources.

opinio : opinion, report, rumor, conjecture, report.

opisthotonos : A disease where the body is curved backward.

oporotheca : place for keeping fruit.

oportet : it is proper, one should, one ought.

oportunitas : convenience, fitness, advantage, opportunity.

oppono opposui oppositum : to set against, oppose, be opposite.

opportune : (adv) opportunely, conveniently.

opportunitas : fitness, suitability, convenience, advantage.

opportunitatus : Heriman, cap. 42.

opportunus : opportune, fit, convenient, suitable.

opportunus : fit, suitable/ (time) favorable /(+dat.) liable to.

opprimo oppressi oppressum : to suppress, overwhelm, overpower, check.

opprobrium : reproach, disgrace.

oppugno : to fight against, attack, assault, assail.

ops : singular: power, poer to aid, power to help.

optimates : the aristocratic party.

optimus: one of the best, aristocrat, noble.

opto : to desire, wish for, want.

opus operis : work, labor, work done, completed work, building.

oratio : speech, address, oration.

orator : orator, speaker.

orbis terrarum : the world, the Earth.

orbis : circle, orb.

ordinatio : rule, government, order, arrangment, regulation.

ordine, ordinem : regularly, appropriately, properly.

ordo : rank, class, order.

orior oriri ortus : rise, become visible, appear.

ornatus : dress, attire, equipment, ornament, embellishment.

orno : to equip, furnish, supply /decorate, adorn.

oro : to speak, argue, plead, orate, beg, entreat.

os, oris : mouth, face, countenance.

ostendo : show, reveal, present, make plain, declare.

ostium : entrance, door.

otium : free time, leisure, ease, peace, repose.

otium : ease, leisure, inactivity.

ovis ovis : sheep.


paciscor : to make an agreement, covenant, pact.

paciscor : to make a bargain or agreement, covenant, deal.

pactum : treaty, pact, contract.

pactum : agreement, contract, covenant, pact.

pactus : agreed-upon, stipulated, betrothed.

paene, pene : nearly, almost.

paganus : countryman, peasant, pagan.

pala : spade, peel for putting bread in the oven.

palam : openly, publicly, (+abl.) in the presence of.

palea : chaff.

pallium : coverlet, mantle, cloak.

palma : palm.

pando : to stretch out, spread out, extent.

panis panis : bread.

par : equal, like.

paratus : prepared, ready, provided, equipped.

paratus : prepared, ready, equipped; (of persons) skilled.

paratus : preparation, fitting out, equipment.

parco : (with dative) to spare, refrain from injuring.

parco : (+inf.: to forebear to), avoid, spare, keep oneself from.

parens parentis : parent.

pareo : (+ dat.) to be obedient to, obey.

paries parietis : wall

parilis : similar, like, equal.

pario, to bear, bring forth, produce/ create, make, get.

pariter : equally, in like manner, as well.

paro : to prepare, get ready/ set, put/ furnish, supply/ buy.

pars partis : part, share /direction.

partim : partly /some.

parum minus minime : (adv.) little, too little, not enough.

parvus minor minimus : small, little

pasco : to graze, forage, browse.

passer : sparrow.

passim : adv. far and wide, everywhere, scattered about.

patefacio : to disclose, expose, open, make open.

pateo : to be revealed, to stand open, to be clear, plain.

pater patris : father.

paternus : of a father, paternal, native.

patiens : patient /(+ gen.) capable of enduring.

patientia : patience, suffering, endurance.

patior : to suffer, endure, permit.

patria : fatherland, one's native country, homeland.

patrocinor : to protect, defend, support, patronize.

patronus : patron, protector.

patruus : paternal uncle.

pauci : few, a few, some.

paulatim : gradually, litle by little.

pauper : beggar, person without means.

pauper : poor, with few means, poverty-stricken.

paupertas : beggardry, poverty, humble circumstances.

pax pacis : peace

peccatus : sin.

pecco : to do wrong, err, sin, go astray.

pecto : to comb, card, thrash (to card wool).

pectus pectoris : heart, breast.

pecunia : money.

pecus : a single head of cattle, especially a sheep.

peior : worse (see malus).

pello pepulli pulsum : to hit, beat /exile, drive away, banish.

pendeo : to hang, depend, be suspended /be uncertain, undecided.

pendo : to weigh, value, consider, judge, esteem.

penitus : inward, inner, interior.

penitus : (adv.) inside, widely, through and through, completely.

penus, us : provender, supplies, victuals.

pepulo : ? Herimann, cap. 3.

per : (+ acc.) (cause) because of, on account of.

per : (+ acc.) (means/instrument) through, with, by, by means of.

per : (+ acc.) (of time) throughout, during, in the course of.

per : (+ acc.) (of space) through, along, over / in the presence of.

peracto : to carry through, complete, accomplish.

peragro : to wander through, travel through.

percipio percepi perceptum : to gain, learn, perceive, understand.

percontor percunctor : inquire, interrogate, investigate.

perculsus : a shock.

percutio (percussum) : to strike hard, pierce, transfix /shock.

perdignus : very worthy.

perdo : to destroy, ruin, waste, scatter, squander.

perduco : to lead through, conduct, carry through.

peregrinus : wanderer, foreigner, stranger / pilgrim, crusader.

pereo : to pass away, be destroyed, perish.

perfectus : complete, finished, done /perfect, without flaw.

perfero : to bear, suffer, endure.

perficio perfeci perfectum: to do thoroughly, accomplish, bring about.

perfruor : to execute completely, enjoy to the full.

perfusus : steeped, soaked, drenched.

pergo : to continue, proceed, go on with.

periclitatus : put in peril, endangered.

periclitor : to test make a trial, put in peril, endanger.

periculosus : hazardous, dangerous.

periculum : danger, risk.

perimo peremi peremptum : to destroy

peritus : skilled, expert.

periurium : perjury, oath-breaking, foreswearing an oath.

perlustro : to pass through, survey, look, examine.

permitto permissi permissum : to allow, permit, let.

permoveo : to excite, agitate, stir up, move.

perniciosus : pernicious, destructive.

perperam : wrongly, falsely.

perpetro : to complete, accomplish, perform.

perpetuus : perpetual, lasting, continuous, uninterrupted.

perscitus : very clever, exceedingly sharp.

perscribo : to write out, write down, place on record.

perseco : to cut through, dissect, cut away.

persequor persequi persecutus : to follow, pursue, take revenge.

perseverantia : perseverence, persistence.

persevero : to persist, persevere, continue.

persisto : to persist, persevere.

persolvo : to unloose, explain, expound /pay off a debt, pay.

personam gero : to act a part.

perspicuus : transparent, bright, clear, evident.

persuadeo persuasi persuasum : (+ dat.) to persuade.

perterreo : to terrify.

pertimesco : to become very much afraid.

pertinacia : firmness, obstinacy, stubborness.

pertinaciter : stubbornly, obstinately.

pertinax : persistent, firm, mean, stubborn, obstinate

pertineo : to pertain to, relate to, concern.

pertingo : to stretch out, extend.

pertorqueo : to twist, distort.

pertraho : to drag, forcibly conduct, entice, allure.

perturbo : to disturb, trouble, perturb, disrupt.

perturpis : very disgraceful.

peruro perussi perustum : to burn up, consume /inflame, gall, chafe.

pervalidus : very strong.

pervenio : (+ acc.) to reach, attain, reach, be passed to.

perverto perverti perversum : to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow.

pervideo pervidi pervisum : to look over, survey, inspect, discern.

pes pedis : foot.

pessimus : worst (see malus)

pessum do: to destroy, ruin, wreck

pessum ire: to sink, be ruined, destroyed, be put to an end.

pessum : to the ground, to the bottom, downward.

pestifer : pestilential, injurious, damaging, plaguey,

pestifere : destructively, injurously.

pestis pestis : plague, epidemic, pestilence /destruction, curse.

petitus : inclining toward

peto : to make for, go to, seek, strive after.

peto : to ask for, beg, request, demand / to sue for.

Pevela : P v

le, near Cisoing.

pharetra : a quiver.

phasma phasmatis : ghost, spirit, specter.

phitonicum : Herimann p. 275.#

pia pium : honest, godly, holy, pious, dutiful, patriotic.

pica : jay, magpie.

picea : the spruce tree

pictor : painter

pictoratus : painted / of cloth, embroidered.

piger pigra pigrum : lazy, slow, dull.

pignus : pawn, pledge, token, (in pl.) persons in pledges of

piper, piperis : pepper.

pipio : to chirp, tweet, pipe.

pirum : pear.

pirus : pear tree.

piscator : fisherman.

piscis piscis : fish.

pius: dutiful, godly, holy, upright, kind, honest, affectionate.

placeo : (+ dat.) to please, be agreeble to

placet : it is agreed, it is resolved, it seems good.

placide : quitely, gently.

placidus : quiet, still, gentle.

placitum : judgment, case/ plea, litigation / defense.

placitum : accord, agreement, pact /assembly for judgment.

placo : to placate, appease.

plaga : district, zone, region.

plagiarius : kid-napper, plagiarist

plane : plainly, clearly.

plango planxi plactum : to strike, beat /bewail, mourn.

platea : street, courtyard.

plaustrum : wagon, cart, charles Wain.

plebs plebis : the common people, the masses, the crowd.

plecto : to punish.

plector : to be punished.

plene : (adv.) completely, wholly, fully.

plenus : full, complete, full, satisfied, rich, mature, plump.

plerumque : for the most part, generally, commonly, mostly.

plerusque : very many, a great number, a large part, the greater part.

plico : to fold.

plorabilis : deplorable.

plorator : a lamenter.

ploratus : weeping, lamenting.

ploro : to lamen, weep, weep over.

pluit pluvit : it is raining, a shower is falling.

pluma : feather /featherbed /pen.

plumbeus : leaden, made of lead /dull, stupid, heavy, opressive, bad.

plumbum album : tin.

plumbum : lead, a bullet, lead pipe.

pluo : to rain, shower, sprinkle.

plura : more numerous, several, many.

plures : more numerous, several, many.

plurimi : at the highest price, of the highest worth.

plurimus : most, very many.

pluris : (gen.) at a higher price, of a great value

plus : more.

plusculus : somewhat more, rather more.

pluvia : rain, shower.

pluvialis : pertaining to rain, of rain.

pocius potius : rather, preferrably.

poema poematis : poem, verse, rhyme.

poena : pain, punishment, penalty /poena dare : to pay the penalty.

poeta : (masc.) poet.

polenta : pearl barley, barley groats.

pollen : fine flour, fine meal. (also pollis )

polleo : to be strong, powerful, able.

pollex : thumb, big toe.

polliceor : to promise, offer.

pollicitus : promised, a promise.

pomum : fruit, apple.

pono posui positum : to lay, place, put, set /(milit.) post, station.

pons pontis : bridge.

poposco : see posco; Herimann, cap. 28, 69.

populus : people, the people, nation, crowd, multitude, host.

porro : forward, further, next, in turn, (of time) long ago.

porta : gate, entrance.

posco : to call upon, ask ernestly, request.

positus : position, place, arrangment.

possessio : possession, property.

possum posse potum : to be able, avail, have influence.

post : (+ acc.) after, behind.

postea : afterwards.

posteri : posterity.

posterus, postremo : subsequent, following, next, future.

posthabeo : to put after, consider of less account, [posthabito].

postpono : to put after, consider secondary.

postquam : (conj.) after.

postulo : to ask.

potens : able, mighty, powerful, strong.

potestas : power, ability, authority /opportunity.

potior : (+ gen. or dat.) to possess, hold, get possession of.

potissimum : (adv.) chiefly, most of all.

potissimus : best of all, chief, principal.

potius : rather, preferably

prae dulcis / pre dulcis : exceedingly sweet.

prae se ferre / pre se ferre : to show, exhibit, on account of.

prae quam / pre quam : in comparison with.

prae pre : (prep. with abl.) before,

prae pre : (adv.) before, in front.

praebeo prebeo : to offer, hold out, supply, provide, allow.

praebeo prebeo : (+ refl.) to show oneself, present oneself.

praecedo precedo : to precede, go before /surpass, excell.

praecelsus precelsus : exceedingly high.

praecepio precepio : precept, preconception.

praeceptum preceptum : precept.

praecido : to cut short, lop, mutilate.

praecipio, precipio : to instruct, advise, warn, anticipate.

praecipuus precipuus: excellent, distinguished, extraordinary.

praeclarus preclarus : excellent, famous, beautiful, striking.

praeconor, preconor : to be a public crier, to herald, proclaim.

praecox precox : ripe beforehand, premature.

praeda preda : plunder, booty, spoils of war, loot, gain, prey.

praedico predico : to warn, admonish, instruct, foretell.

praeeo preeo : to go before, precede /to say in advance /to order.

praefero prefero : to carry in front, display, prefer.

praefero prefero : anticipate, carry by, ride by.

praeficio preficio /prefeci prefectum : to put in charge of

praefinio prefinio : to appoint ahead of time

praefoco prefoco : to choke, suffocate.

praegravo pregravo : to press heavily upon, weigh down, oppress.

praemitto : to send forward, dispatch, send in advance.

praemium premium : reward, prize.

praemo premo : to press down, strike down.

praenuntio, prenuntio : to foretell, announce before hand.

praenuntius, prenuncius : foretelling, harbinger, omen, token.

praepono prepono : to set over, prefer.

praepositus prepositus : (monastic) prior.

praeproperus, preproperus: over-hasty, precipitate.

praesentia presentia : presence, presence of mind, effect, power.

praesentia presencia : power, effect.

praesidium presidium : guard, garrison, detachment /protection.

praestans prestans : excellent, distingished, imminent.

praestantia prestantia: superiority, excellence.

praesto : to stand before, be outstanding, excell, surpass, show.

praesto presto : to answer for, be responsible for.

praesto presto : to do, perform, display, fulfill, offer, present.

praesul presul : dancer /presider, protector, director.

praesum presum : to be at the head of, be in charge of.

praesumo presumo : to anticipate, take for granted.

praeter : adj., except; prep. + acc., besides, beyond, more than.

praeterea preterea : besides, further, hereafter.

praetereo pretereo : to pass over, pass by, omit.

praeteritus preteritus : past.

praetermissio pretermissio : neglect, passing over, omission.

praetorgredior pretergredior : to pass betond, go beyond.

praevenio, prevenio : to come before, anticipate.

praevenio : get the start of.

pravitas : crookedness, depravity, deformity, perversity.

preastolatio prestolatio : the waiting for, expectation.

precipio : to anticipate, instruct, advise, warn.

precipue : chiefly, especially, particularly.

precor : to pray, beg, entreat, invoke.

prehendo : to seize, snatch, grasp, detain, arrest.

premo pressi pressum : to squeeze, press down, strike down.

prenda : booty, loot, stolen goods.

pretereo : to go by, pass by, escape.

pretium : price, vaue, reward.

prevenire : to come to, go before hand, attend.

prex precis : request, entreaty, prayer.

primitus : first, for the first time.

primo : first, at first, at the beginning, at the start.

primoris : first, foremost /most distinguished, first.

primum : quam primum : as soon as possible.

primum : at first, for the first time, in the first place.

princeps : chief, prince.

principatus : rule, dominion, pre-eminence, first place.

principium : beginning.

prior prius : former, prior.

priores, um : forefathers, ancestors.

priscus : ancient, antique, former, old days, venerable.

pristinus : former, venerable, ancient.

prius : before, formerely.

priusquam : (conj.) before.

privatus : private, unofficial, a private person.

privigna : step-daughter.

privo : to deprive

privus : (with gen.) deprived of.

pro eo : because of the fact, because, for this reason..

pro : (+ abl.) in return for, instead of /for, as.

pro : (+ abl.) in front of, before /on behalf of, for.

probitas : probity, uprightness, honesty.

probo : to show, prove, demonstrate, approve, find good, judge.

procedo : to go out, come out /result, prosper /turn out well.

procedo : to go ahead, proceed, advance, continue.

procella : storm, tempest, gale; (milit) charge, onset, wave.

procella : storm, tempest, gale.

procer : chief noble, prince.

procinctu : prepared or ready for battle.

procul : far, at, to, from a distance.

procurator : manager, bailiff, agent.

prodigiosus : unnatural, wonderful, miraculous, amazing.

proditor : traitor, betrayer.

proelium : battle.

profecto : truly, really, indeed.

profero : to carry out, bring forth.

proficio : to make progress, advance.

proficio : advance, assist, help, aid, be of use.

proficiscor : to depart, set out, to start forward, to arise.

proficuus : proficiscor : to start forward, set out, depart, arise.

profiteor: to make a public statement / to declare oneself.

profiteor: to acknowledge, confess / offer, promise.

profor profari profatus : to speak out.

profugus : fleeing, fugitive, banished, migratory.

profundo frofui profusum : to pour forth, gush, stream.

profundum : a depth, abyss, chasm /the sea.

profundus : deep, profound, high, thick, dense, boundless.

progener : husband of a grand-daughter.

progenero : to produce, engender.

progenies : descent, lineage, progeny, offspring, descendants.

progenitor : founder of a family, ancestor.

progigno progenui progenitum : to engender, briing forth.

prognatus : born, sprung from /son.

progredior : to go forth, advance, proceed, go out.

progressio : advance, progress, increase.

progressus : advance, going forward, increase, a royal circuit.

prohibeo : to prevent, hinder, restrain, prohibit, forbid.

prohibitio : prohibition, restrain, forbidding.

proicio : to throw forth, fling, abandon.

proinde ut: proinde quam: just as.

proinde quasi proinde ac si : just as if.

proinde :consequently, therefore, as a result.

prolabor : to slide forward, slip forward, fall forward, fall down.

prolapsio : a slipping or sliding.

prolatio : a bringing forward, mentioning /extension /deferring.

prolato : to enlarge, lengthen, extend /put off, defer.

prolecto : to entice, allure.

proles : offspring, descendants, posterity, (plants : fruit).

proletarius : a citizen of the lowest rank.

prolicio prolixi : to lure forth, entice.

prolix : long, stretching.

prolixus : wide, broad, long / willing, obliging, favorable.

proloquor : to speak out, declare openly.

proluo prolu prolutum : to wash away, wash clean.

prolusio : preliminary exercise, prelude.

proluvier : innundation /scouring /discharge.

promereo promereor : to deserve, merit

promeritum : desserts, merit, credit.promissio : a promise.

prominens : jutting out, standing out /a projection.

promineo : to stand out, jut, extend.

promisce promiscue : indiscrimately.

promiscus promiscuus : mixed, indiscriminate /commonplace, usual.

promissio : a promisse

promissor : a promiser, suretor, guarantor.

promitto : to let go, send forth, undertake, promise.

promitto : to let go forward, send forth, promise, undertake.

promo prompsi promptum : to produce, disclose, bring forth.

promontorium : peak, mountain crest, ridge, promontory.

promoveo promovi promotum : push forward, move ahead, advance.

prompte : promptly, resolutely, readily.

promptu : in promptu habere : to have read, display, have on show.

promptu : in promptu ponere : to make clear, reveal, disclose.

promptu : in promptu esse : to be ready, to be easy, to be clear.

promptus : (persons) prepared, resolute, prompt.

promptus : ready at hand, visible, apparent.

promulgatio : publication, promulgation (of a law).

promus : steward, butler.

promutuus : (cash) advanced, prepaid, arragned beforehand.

pronepos proneptos : great-grandson

pronuntio : to proclaim, announce, declaim.

prope : near, nearly, not far from, just now, closely.

prope : near, near to, not far, not long from now.

propello : to drive before one, drive away.

propero : to hasten, speed, move rapidly, come quickly.

propero : to hasten / accelerate, speed up.

propinquo : (intrans) to come near, draw near, approach.

propinquus : near, close, similar, nearly related.

propono : display, publish, relate, tell, propose, promise.

propositum : a design, purpose, scheme, theme of discourse.

proprie : exclusively, particularly, peculiarly. properly.

proprius : one's own, special, characteristic, particular.

proprius : one's own, permanent, special, peculiar.

propter : (+ acc.) near, close, on account of, because of.

propugnaculum : fortification, rampart, defense.

prorsus : forward, straight ahead, to sum up, utterly, wholly.

prosequor (prosecutus) : to attack, go with, pursue, attend.

prosper : favorable, fortunate, lucky, prosperous.

prosperitas : propserity, good fortune.

prosum (profuturus) : to be useful, of benefit, do good.

prosum : to be useful, do good, benefit (+ dative).

prosum : (with dat.) to be useful, do good, benefit.

protestor, protesto : to declare in public, affirm, bear witness.

protinus : forward, further on, continuously, immediately.

protraho (protractus): to draw out, rpotact, defer, make known.

prout : just as, according to.

provectus : advanced, advanced in age.

proveho : to carry on, carry forward, advance, promote,

proventus : a growing up, increase, crop, yield, or issue.

provideo : to foresee, provide, make provision for.

provisor : one who provides for, or against.

provolvere se : to throw oneself down, abase oneself.

proximus : nearest, closest, next.

prudens : prudent, wise.

prudenter : wisely, discreetly.

prudentia : foresight, wisdom, discretion.

Pruma : Prums.

publicus : of the people, public, open to all.

puchre : beautifully, finely, handsomely.

pudendus : shameful, disgraceful.

pudeo : to be ashamed,

pudicus : modest. chaste.

pudor : modesty, bashfulness.

puella : girl.

puer : boy.

puerilis : childish, boyish, folish, foolish.

pueriliter : boyishly, childishly, foolishly.

puga pyga : buttocks.

pugna : fight, battle, conflict, set-to.

pugnacitas : the desire to fight, pugnacity.

pugnaculum : fortress.

pugnax : fond of fighting, combative, stubborn, contntious.

pugno : to fight.

pugnus : the fist.

pulchellus : pretty.

pulcher pulchra pulchrum : beautiful, handsome, fine.

pulchritudo pulchritudinis : beauty, fineness.

pulex : the flea.

pullulo : shoot up, sprout, burgeon.

pullus : dark-clorored, blackish /sad, gloomy / a dark garment.

pullus : young animal /chicken, chick.

pulmentum : anything eaten with bread, sauce or relish.

pulmo : the lung.

pulpa : flesh.

pulpitum : platform, stage.

pulso : to strike (the hours)

pulsus : beating, blow, push, influence.

pulsus : beating, blow, push, impulse, influence.

pulvis : dust, powder /arena, scene of action.

pumilius pumilio : a dwarf.

punctum : a prick, little hole, puncture /a point, spot, place.

pungo pupugi punctum : to penetrate /sting, annoy, harrass.

pungo pupugi punctum : to prick, puncture, stab /touch, move.

puniceus : purple, red.

punio : to punish, avenge, gave vengeance.

punitor : punisher, avenger.

pupa : doll /little girl.

pupillus pupilla : orphan, ward.

puppis : stern of a ship, the poop.

pupula : pupil of the eye.

purgamentum : rubbish, trash, filth, sweepings.

purgatio: cleaning out, cleansing /excsuing, justification.

purgo : to clean, cleanse, purify/ clear away, wash off/ justify.

purpura : purple dye, purple cloth /high rank, emperorship.

purus : pure, free from.

pusillus : tiny, puny /petty, mean.

putator : pruner.

puteo : to stink, be redolent, smell bad.

puter : rotten, decayed, putrid /loose, crumbling /flabby.

putesco : to putrefy, day, rot.

puteus : well, pit.

puto : to clear, settle up, consider, think, believe, suppose, judge.

putus : pure, unmixed, unadulterated.

pyropus : bronze.

pyus pyxidis : a little box, casket.


qua : (adv.) by which route, where.

qua : (fem. sing. abl.) (the abbess) BY WHOM she was advised.

quadraginta : forty (Indecl.)

quadratus : square, a square.

quadrigae : four-horse team.

quadrivium : second stage of the medieval curriculum

quadrivium : crossroads, place where four roads meet.

quadrum : a square

quadruplator : an exaggerator, informer

quadruplor : to be an informant.

quae : (neut. plur. nom.) WHAT cannot be avoided must be endured.

quae que : (fem. sing. nom.) (the milkmaid), WHO loved a prince.

quae : (neut. pl. acc.) those things WHICH we must have

quae : (fem. pl. nom.) Let THOSE (women) WHO have ears to hear ..

quaero quero : to seek, search for / ask, enquire, search for

quaero quero : to miss, want / seek to know / obtain, get.

quaesitio quesitio : investigation, interrogation.

quaeso queso : to seek for, ask for.

quaestio questio : seeking, searching /inquiry, investigation.

quaestuosus questuosus : profitable, fond of gain, rich.

quaestus questus : profit, a source of profit, gainiing, getting.

qualis : of what kind? of the kind that.

qualiscumque : of any kind whatever, any whatever.

qualislibet : of what sort you will.

qualitas : quality, property.

qualiter : as, just as.

quam plures : as many as possible.

quam : (adv. and conj.) how, than, as ... as possible.

quam : (fem. sing. acc.) (the church), WHICH the Lord loved.

quamdiu : such a long time.

quamobrem, quam ob rem : wherefore? why? for which reason.

quamquam : nevertheless, and yet (beginning a sentence)/ though.

quamtotius : ? completely.

quamvis : (conj) however much, although/ as much as you like.

quando : (interr.) when si quando : if ever.

quandoquidem : since, because.

quanti : for how much, at what price.

quanto : by how much (+ comp. adj. or adv.)

quantocius quantotius : the soon the better.

quantocius quantotius : as quickly as possible.

quantum in me est : as much as in me lies.

quantum : (+ gen.) as much of ... as.

quantum : how much?, how much!, as much as.

quantus ... quantus : as great as, as much as.

quantus : how great?, how great!, how much, as great as.

quantuscumque quantacumque quantumcumque : however great

quantuslibet : as much as you will, as great as you will.

quantuvis : as great as you please, however great.

quapropter : wherefore.

quare : wherefore, why, because of which thing.

quartus : fourth.

quarum : (fem. pl. gen.) their envy and jealousy, OF WHICH we know.

quas : (fem. pl. acc.) the fates, against whom he struggled

quasi : as if, just as, just as if, as it were /a sort of

quassatio : a shaking.

quasso : to shake violently, shake to pieces, break, shatter..

quatenus/quatinus : since, as, in order that, that.

quatenus/quatinus : how far, to what extent, where, seeing that.

quater : four times /again and again.

quattuor : four (indecl.)

quem : (masc. sing. acc.) (the man), WHOM the king struck.

quemadmodum : how, in what manner.

queo : to be able.

quercetum : an oak grove, and oak forest.

quercus : oak tree.

quereia querella : complaint, complaining.

queribundus : complaining, plaintive, whining.

querimonia : complaint, a charge in court.

queritor : to complain excessively, whine, gripe.

quernus : oaken.

queror : to complain, lament, bewail (dogs) whine, whimper.

querulus : complaining, whining, lamenting.

qui quae que quod : which, what, that.

qui : (masc. pl. nom.) Let THOSE (men) WHO have eyes to see...

qui : (masc. neut. nom.) (the prince) WHO loved a milkmaid

quia : because.

quibus : (neut. pl. abl.) the arms WITH WHICH he won Rome.

quibus : (fem. pl. dat.) the good fortune, TO WHICH he owed his crown.

quibus : (neut. pl. dat.) the crimes FOR WHICH he was executed.

quibus : (masc. pl. dat.) the monastery IN WHICH he was intered.

quibus : (masc. pl. abl.) his sons, BY WHOM he was attacked when old

quibus : (fem. pl. abl.) the beards, BY WHICH the pirates were known.

quicquid : whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all.

quid : what (neut. of quis )

quidam quaedam quedam quidam : a certain person or thing,/ kind of.

quidem : indeed, certainly, at least/ ne ... quidem : not ... even.

quies quietis : quiet, rest, peace.

quilibet : anyone, anything.

quin etiam : why even, in fact, moreover.

quin : but come now, rather, indeed,

quinam quaenam quenam quodnam : which? what?

quingenti : five hundred.

quinquennis : five years old.

quippe : certainly, to be sure, indeed, of course.

quisnam, quidnam : who, what.

quisquam : anyone, anything.

quisque : each one, each person.

quisquis : whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all.

quo : to which place, to what place, whither, where.

quo : (masc. sing. abl.) (the money) BY means of WHICH he lived.

quo : (neut. sing. abl.) (the eagerness) THROUGH WHICH he died.

quod : because, whereas, the point that, the fact that.

quod : (with time) since, as far as, to the extent that.

quod : (beginning sentence) and, but, now.

quod : (neut. sing. acc.) (the sea), WHICH you cannot drink dry.

quod : (neut. sing. nom.) (the war), WHICH killed so many.

quodammodo : in a certain way, in a certain measure.

quomodo : in what manner, how/ in whatever way, somehow.

quondam : formerly, once, at one time, ertswhile.

quoniam : since, whereas, because.

quoque : also, too.

quorum : (neut. pl. gen.) dangers, OF WHICH there were not a few.

quorum : (masc. pl. gen.) the army, half OF WHICH was ill.

quos : (masc. pl. acc.) those WHOM he accused of treachery.

quot : how many, as many (indecl.).

quotiens : often.

quotienscumque : however often.

quovis : to whatever place you will.


radicitus : by the roots, utterly.

rapio rapui ratum : to seize, snatch, carry away.

rarus : rare, uncommon.

ratio : system, manner, method, procedure, manner.

ratio : reckoning, account /reason, judgment, consideration.

re vera : in truth.

recedo : to go back, retreat, retire, disappear.

recipio recepi receptum : to go back, retire, recede, retreat.

recito : to read aloud, recite.

recognosco : to recognize, recollect, recall.

recolo : to recall, reflect upon, rework, resume, rehabilitate.

recolo : to cultivate, work again, resume, rehabilitate

recolo : reflect upon, consider, recall.

reconcilio : to restore, repair / (of persons) unite, reconcile.

recondo : lay up, store, hoard.

recordatio : recollection, memory, recall.

recordor : to remember, think of, recollect, ponder over.

recro : to recreate, restore, revive.

rectum : virtue, right

rectus : right, correct, proper, upright, natural, plain.

recuperatio : recovery, recuperation.

recupero : to regain, recoup, recover.

recuso : to refuse.

redarguo : refute, disprove, contradict.

redarguo : disprove, refute. With gen. prove guilty, convict.

reddo : to repeat, recite, represent, imitate, pay up, deliver.

reddo : to give back, restore, return, answer, translate, render.

redemptio : ransoming, redemption, buying back, farming taxes.

redemptor : redeemer (Christ).

redeo : to go back, come back, return /(revenue) to come in.

redeo : to fall back upon, be reduced to, be brought to.

redigo (redactum) to bring or reduce to a condition, lessen.

redono : to give back, give up.

reduco : to lead back, bring back, return.

redundantia : overflowing, redundancy.

redundo : to overflow, stream over, overflow, excess, flood.

refectorium : refectory, monastic mess hall.

refero : to bring back a message, refer.

reformo : to form again, mould anew.

regina : queen.

regius : royal, regal.

regnum : rule, authority, kingdom, realm.

rego rexi rectum : to guide, direct, to rule.

regula : rule / monastic rule.

relaxo : to loosen, enlarge, relax, ease, lighten.

relego relegi relectum : to read again, re-read.

relevo : to lift again, lighten, alleviate, relieve.

relictus : (fr. relinquo) having inherited, been bequeathed.

relinquo : to leave behind, bequeath/abandon, forsake.

reliquum : remainder, what is left, leavings.

relucesco : to become bright again.

reluctor : to struggle against, resist.

remando : to send back word.

remaneo : to stay behind, remain, continue.

remaneo : to remain behind, stay, continue.

rememdium : cure, remedy, nostrum, medicine.

removeo : to draw back, set aside, take away.

remuneror : to repay, reward.

renuntio : to declare, announce, report, give notice.

renuo : to deny, refuse, reject.

rependo : to ransom, pay back, requite.

repens : sudden, unexpected, fresh, recent.

repente : suddenly, unexpectedly.

repere : to crawl.

reperio : to get again, find, ascertain, dicover, invent.

repetitio : repetition.

repeto : to seek again, ask back.

repeto : to return to, begin again, deduce, recall, recollect.

repleo : to replenish, fill up, fill up again, fill, satisfy.

repletus : filled, full.

repo repsi reptum : to creep, crawl.

repono : to deposit, lay up, store / requite.

reprehendo : to blame, reprove, refute, hold back, check, catch.

repugno : to fight against, oppose, resist /be incompatible with.

requiesco requievi requietum : to rest.

requiro : to ask for, look for, demand, desire, miss.

res rei : thing, matter, busines, affair.

res publica : commonwealth, state, republic, public business.

resisto : to resist, make a stand, oppose.

respicio : to look back, provide for, respect, have regard for.

respondeo respondi responsum : to answer, reply, respond.

restituo : restore, put back, replace, reinstate, repair.

resumo (resumpsi, resumptum) : to renew, repeat, resume.

retineo : to hold back, restrain, detain, keep, maintain.

retraho retraxi retractum : to draw back, pull back.

retribuo : to give again, give as due.

reus : defendant, accused, answerable, bound.

revenio : to come back, return.

reverto : to go back, return, revert.

revertor reverti reversus : to return, come back.

revoco : to call back, recover, refer, revoke.

revolvo : to unroll a book, go over again, repeat.

rex rgis : king.

rhetor : rhetorician, teacher of rhetoric.

rhetoricus : rhetorical.

rideo risi risum : to laugh at, laugh.

rigor : stiffness, hardness, sterness.

ritus : usage, ceremony, rite.

rogo eum ut +subjunctive : to ask someone to do something.

rogo : to ask, ask for.

rostrum : bill of a bird, beak.

rota : wheel.

Rotomagense : Rouen.

rotundus : wheel-shaped, round.

rubor : redeness, blush, modesty, shame, disgrace.

rudimentum : trial, attempt, essay.

rumor : rumor, gossip.

ruo rui rutum : to rush, fall, be ruined.

rursus : on the other hand, in return, back, again.

rus ruris : the country, countryside, rural area.

rusticus : rustic, rural /peasant.


sabbatum : sabbath.

sacculus : purse, little bag, little sack.

sacrificum : sacrifice.

sacrilegus : sacrilegious, impious.

saepe sepe : hedge, fence, enclosure, haye.

saepe sepe : often, frequently, repeatedly.

saepenumero : repeated, again and again.

saepius sepius : often, frequently, repeatedly.

saeta : hair.

saeta equina : horse-hair.

saevio : to rege, be furious, take violent action.

sal salis : salt, wit.

salsus : salty, witty.

saltem : at least, at all events.

salus : health, safety, well-being, salvation /salutation.

saluto : to wish well, greet, visit, reverence, pay respect to.

salutor : visitor, caller.

salveo : to be well, be in good health.

salvus : safe, sound.

sanctifico : to sanctify, make holy.

sanctimonia : purity, charity, virtue, sanctity, sacredness.

sanctimonialis : nun.

Sanctus Eleutherius : St. Eligius.

Sanctus Egidius : St. Gilles.

sanctus : holy, sacred, /saint.

Sanctus Rodoenus : St. Ouen.

sane : rationally, sensibly, really, indeed, to be sure.

sanitas : health, soundness of mend, sanity.

sano : to heal.

Santiago : St. James.

sanus : sound, healthy, sane.

sapiens : (subs.) a wise man, philosopher.

sapiens : wise, judicious.

sapienter : wisely, judiciously.

sapientia : wisdom.

sarcina : bundle, pack, burden, load.

satago : to pay a creditor, satisfy a creditor.

satago : have one's hands full, have enough to do.

satio : to satisfy, sate.

satis : enough, sufficient /sufficiently.

sato : to sow, plant.

satura : satire.

saturo : to fill, satisfy.

scaber : scabby, rough.

scabies : the itch, mange, a rash.

Scaldus : Scheldt.

scamnum : bench, stool.

scaphium (sciphus : Herimann, cap. 24) pot, bowl, drinking vessel

sceleratus : wicked, accurased, infamous, criminal.

scelero : to pollute with guilt, with blood, etc.

scelestus : wicked, accurse, infamous, criminal.

scelus sceleris : crime, sin, evil deed, wickedness.

schola : school /elite troop of soldiers.

scientia : knowledge, science, skill.

scilicet : evidently, certainly, of course, no doubt, assuredly.

scindo : to cut, rend, split, divide, separate.

scio scivi scitum : to know.

scio : to know, understand.

scio : to know, understand.

scisco : investigate, ask, inquire/ vote, ordain, resolve.

scribo, scripsi scriptum : to write, compose.

scrinium : bookcase, case for papers.

scriptor : writer, author, scribe.

se habere : to keep oneself.

se gero : to conduct oneself, conduct, carry on.

se astringo : to commit oneself to.

secedo : to go apart, withdraw.

secerno secrevi secretum : to separate.

secundum : (adv.) after, behind.

secundum : (+ inf.), following, after, during, according to.

secundus : second.

securus : safe, secure, free from care, unworried, unconcerned.

secus : non secus, haud secus: just so.

secus : otherwise, not so.

secus + atque or quam : differently from, otherwise than.

secus : wrongly, badly, not as one would wish.

secuutus : follower, pursuer.

sed : but/ and indeed, what is more.

sedeo sedi sessum : to sit.

seditio : dissension, quarrel, insurrection, mutiny, rising.

sedo : to settle, smooth, calm, allay.

seductor : seducer.

semel : a single time, for the first time, even once, once, ever.

semper : always, ever.

senectus : old age, dotage.

senex senis : old, aged, old man.

sensus : feeling, sense.

sententia : opinion, thought, way of thinking, meaning, purpose.

sentio : to judge, suppose, vote.

sentio : feel, perceive, experience, hold an opinion,

seorsum : apart, separately.

sepelio : to ruin, destroy, bury.

septem : seven.

sepulchrum :grave, tomb, sepulcher.

seputus : buried, sunk, immersed.

sequax : following, attending, pursuing.

sequor sequi secutus : to follow, trail.

serio : seriously.

serius : serious, grave, solemn.

sermo : talk, common talk, rumor, report, discussion.

sermo : discussion, talk, common talk, conversation, rumor.

sero : to sow, plant. also, late, at a late hour.

servio : (+ dat.) to be a slave to, serve.

servitus : serviude, slavery.

servo : to watch over, keep, protect, observe, save, reserve.

servus : slave, serf.

sese : himself, herself, itself, =se.

severitas : severity, rigor, sternness, strictness.

si : if.

sibimet : to them themselves.

sic : so, thus /yes, that is so, that is right.

siccus : dry, thirsty/ sober, temperate.

Siclinium : Seclin.

Siclinium : Seclin in Melanchois.

sicut : as, just as, as it were, (+verb in subj.) just as if.

sidus : constellation, star.

signum : sign, seal, indication, sign.

silens : silent, still

silenti etc : the dead.

silentium : silence, stillness, quiet, repose, obscurity.

silentium : (religion) faultlessness, perfection.

sileo : to be still, silent/ (+ acc.) be silent about / rest.

siligo -inis : wheat, wheat flour.

silva : woods, forest.

similis : similar, like, resembling.

similitudo : likeness, resemblance/ uniformity.

simplex : simple, unaffected.

simul atque : as soon as.

simul : at once, at the same time, together.

simulatio : pretense,

sine : (+ abl.) without.

singularis : alone, unique, extraordinary, individual, singular.

singuli : one each, one apiece, single, separate.

singultim : stammeringly.

singultus : sobbing, gasping.

singultus : sobbing, death rattle.

singulus : single, separate, one at a time, one each.

sino : allow, suffer, permit, let.

siquidem : since, indeed

sitio : to be thirsty.

sitis : thirst, dryness, drought, eager desire.

sive seu : or if.

socer : father in law.

socius : sharing, associated, allied.

socius : partner, comrade, associate, ally, fellow.

sodalitas : fellowship, companionship, secret society.

sol solis : sun.

soleo : to be accustomed, be used to.

solio : ? Herimann, cap. 28.

solitudo solitudinis : loneliness, solitude.

solium : chair of state, throne / bath-tub.

sollers : clever, skillful.

sollicito : to stir up, incite, arouse.

sollicitudo : uneasiness, anxiety, disquiet, apprehension.

sollicitudo : concern, anxiety, solicitude, worry.

sollicitus : uneasy, worried, anxious, restless, agitated.

sollicitus : troubled, anxious, concerned, worried.

solum : land, country, soil, ground/ bottom, floor, foundation.

solum : non solum ... sed etiam: not only ... but also.

solum : (adv) alone, only.

solus : alone, only, the only.

solutio : loosening /payment /solution /explanation.

solvo : to loosen, untie, release, free, dissolve, break up.

somniculosus : sleepy, drowsy

somniculouse : sleepily, drowsily.

somnio : to dream /(+ acc.) to dream of, imagine foolishly.

somnium : dream, fancy, day-dream /foolishness, nonsense.

somnus : sleep.

sonitus : noise, sound.

sono : to make a noise /sing /celebrate/ (of words) to mean.

sophismata : falso conclusions, logical fallacies.

sopor : deep sleep.

sordeo : to be dirty, appear vile.

sordes : filth, meanness, stinginess.

sordesco : to become dirty.

sortitus : casting lots, deciding by lot.

spargo sparsi sparsum : scatter, strew, spread.

speciosus : beautiful, handsome, imposing / specious plausible.

spectaculum : spectacle, show.

specto : to look at, watch, see.

speculum : mirror.

specus : cave, cavern, grotto, den.

sperno sprevi spretum : to scorn, despise, spurn.

spero : to hope for, hope.

spes : hope.

spiculum : sharp point, sting, spear, dart.

spiritus : breath, breathing /life /spirit.

spoliatio : plundering, looting, stripping, robbing.

spolio : to strip, plunder, despoil, rob, loot

spolium : spoils, plunder, booty.

sponte : willingly, of one's own accord, unaided.

St. Richarius : St. Riquier.

stabilis : firm, stable, steadfast.

stabilitas : firmness, stability, durability.

Stabulaus : Stavelot.

statim : firmly, steadfastly, on the spot, at once, immediately.

statua : statue.

statuo : to give a ruling, make an arrangment, decide.

statuo : to cause to stand, establish, place, set up.

stella : star.

stillicidium : dripping moisture, rainwater from the eaves.

stipes, itis : log, tree-trunk, branch, post, club, blockhead.

stipes : log, stump, tree trunk, branch, post, club.

stips, stipis : small coin, gift.

sto, steti, statum : to stand, stand still, stand firm.

strenuus : brisk, active, vigorous/ turbulent, restive.

strues : piles, heaps, masses.

studio : (+ dat.) to study, pursue eagerly, be eager for.

studiose : eagerly.

studium : eagerness, zeal.

stultus : foolish /a fool.

suadeo : to recommend, advise (a person)

suasoria : persuasive discourse.

sub : (+ acc. or dat.) under, up under, close to, beneath, below.

subito : adv. suddenly, unexpectedly.

subitus : sudden, unexpected.

subiungo : to yoke beneath, join, attach, subdue, subjugate.

sublime : on high, aloft.

subnecto : to bind on beneath, to tie.

subseco : to cut away, pare

subsequor : to follow after

substantia : substance, essence, means of subsistence, property.

subvenio : to come up to aid, relieve.

subvenio : to come to the aid, succor, relieve, help, assist.

succedo : to approach, submit, etc. etc.

succendo : to kindle, set afire from below.

successio : succeeding, succession, descent, descendant.

succurro : to run up under /aid, assist, help.

sufficio : to be sufficient, suffice, be enough.

suffoco : to strangle, choke, suffocate.

suffragium : vote, franchise /approval support, aid, assistance.

suggero : to bring up, supply, provide, add, attach. place next.

sui : himself, herself, itself.

sulum : each, every.

sum fui futurus : to be, exist.

summa : the highest part /whole, sum.

summisse : humbly, softly, calmly, modestly.

summissus (from summitto) : let down, lowered, gentle, mild.

summopere : very much, exceedingly.

sumo : to take, choose, obtain, buy./ take for granted, assume.

sumptus : expense, cost.

supellex supellectilis : furniture, apparatus, gear.

super : (prep.) (+ abl.) over, above /concerning, about, besides.

super : (adv.) over, above, besides, beyond, moreover, remaining.

superbia : pride, arrogance.

superbus : overbearing, arrogant, haughty, proud.

superficies : surface, top.

superfluo : flow over, overflow, be superfluous.

superna : northeast by north wind.

superne : from above, above.

supernus : above, superior.

supero : to be above, have the upper hand, surpass, conquer, overcome.

supersum : to be superfluous, to remain.

superus superior supremus or summus : above, upper, high.

supervacuus : superfluous, unnecessary, extra :

supervenio : to arrive, come up, arrive unexpectedly.

suppellex suppellectilus : ornaments.

suppellex suppellectilus : household articles, furniture, goods.

supplanto : to trip up.

supplex : kneeling, entreating, suppliant.

supplicium : punishment.

suppono subpono : to put under, subject /put next to, add.

suppono subpono : to put in place of, substitute, forge.

supra : (+ acc.) above.

surculus : shoot, sprout.

surgo surrexi surrectum : to get up arise.

sursum : upwards, sursum deorsum : up and down.

suscipio : to raise up, maintain, support, accept, receive, undertake.

suscito : to stir up, arouse, excite.

suspendo suspendi suspensum : to suspend, hang.

sustineo : to hold up, sustain, endure.

suus sua suum : (refl. poss. adj.) his, her, its, their own.

synagoga : synagogue.


tabella : writing tablet.

tabellae : letter, document.

tabernus : booth, hut, cottage, hove, small shop, inn, tavern.

tabesco : to melt, waste away, pine, be spoiled.

tabgo tetigi tactum : to touch.

tabula : board, plank, gaming board, painted panel.

taceo tacuitacitum : to be silent, leave unmentioned.

tactus : sense of feeling, touch.

taedium, tedium : disgust, weariness, boredom.

talio, -onis : retribution.

talis : of such a kind, such.

talus : the ankle, ankle bone,.

tam ... quam : as ... as possible.

tam : to such a degree, so, so far.

tamdiu : for such a long time.

tamen : nothwithstanding, nevertheless, yet, still, for all that.

tametsi : even if, although.

tamisium : sieve, sifter (Herman, p. 308).

tamquam tanquam : as, just as, like as, just as if.

tandem : adv. at last, finally.

tantillus : so little, so small.

tantum : only.

tantummodo : only just, just so long as.

tantus : so large, so great, of such a size.

tardus : slow, late, tardy.

Taruennam : Th


te : (abl.) you /no one's sweeter than YOU.

te : (acc.) you /i got YOU, babe.

tego texi tectum : to cover, bury, conceal, hide, protect, shield.

temeritas : rashness, temerity.

temperantia : moderation, self-control, temprance.

tempero : to mix properly, temper, regulate, mitigate.

tempero : be moderate, control oneself.

tempero : (+abl. or with ab) to keep from, refrain from.

tempero : (+ dat.) to control, use with moderation, spare,

tempestas : storm, weather.

Templovium : Templeuve, villa near Cisoing.

templum : sacred precinct, temple, sometimes church.

temptatio : trial, temptation.

tempus temporis : time.

tenax : grasping, stingy, cligning, frugal, obstinate.

tendo : to direct, try, attempt, stretch, extend, present, give.

tendo : to direct one's course, tend, make or head for.

teneo : to keep on, persist, persevere, endure.

teneo : to hold, keep, possess, maintain.

teneo : to grasp, know, understand.

tener tenera tenerum : tender, delicate, soft, young.

tenuis : thin, slight, feeble, slim, slender.

tenus : prep. With abl. as far as, up to, to, down to.

tenus : (after a name in abl. or gen.) up to, down to as far as.

tepesco : to cool, grow lukewarm, decrease.

tepidus : warm, luke-warm, tepid

ter : three times, thrice.

terebro : to bore through, perforate.

teres : rounded, polished, smooth, fine, elegant.

terga dare : to flee, retreat, run awar.

tergeo tergo tersi tersum : to wipe, scour, clean

tergiversatio : backwardness, reulctance, evasion.

tergo (a tergo ) : in the rear, fom behind

tergum : skin, hide

tergum : back, rear.

tergus : the back /skin, hide, leather.

termes : a tree branch (especially olive).

terminatio : termination, determination, setting of boundaries.

termino : restrict, define, close, set a limit to.

terminus : a boundary mark, limit, end, border.

tero trivi tritum : to rub, wear out.

terra : earth, ground, land, country, soil.

terreo : to frighten, terrify, scare away, deter.

territo : to scare, frighten, intimidate.

terror : friight, fear, terror.

tersus : clean, neat, correct.

tertius : third.

testimonium : proof, evidence, witness, indication.

testis : one who gives evidence, witness, spectator / testicle.

texo : to weave, twine together, plait, construct, build.

texo : the main verb for weaving of cloth.

textilis : woven fabric, piece of cloth.

textor textrix : weaver.

textus : woven cloth, web.

thalassinus : sea-green.

theatrum : theater.

theca : case, envelope, covering.

thema thematis : theme.

thema : subject, topic, theme.

theologus : theologian.

thermae : warm springs, warm baths.

thesaurus : treasure, horde /store-room, treasury.

thesis : proposition, thesis.

thorax : breastplate

thymbra : the herb savory.

thymum : the herb thyme.

tibi: (dat.) you /i can't give YOU anything but love, baby.

timeo : to fear, be afraid, dread.

timidus : fearful, timid.

timor : fear, dread, object causing fear.

titulus :label, title, placard.

tolero : to tolerate, bear, endure, sustain.

tollo sustuli sublatum : to lift up, raise, elevate, carry away.

tondeo totondi tonsum : shave, shear, clip, mow, reap, browse.

tonsor : barbar.

Tornacense : Tournai.

torqueo : to twist, curl, rack, torture, torment, distort, test.

torrens : rushing, seething, buring, parched /a torrent.

tot : (indecl.) so many.

totidem : just as many.

toties, toties : so often, so many times.

toties, totiens : so many times, so often.

toties : often, so many times.

totus : whole, entire, complete, all.

tracto : to drag, handle /treat, discuss, deal with.

trado tradidi traditum : surrender /hand over /transmit, teach.

traho traxi tractum : to drag, pull /derive, get.

Traiectensium : Utrecht.

Traiectum : Maastricht.

trans : (+ acc.) across.

transeo : to go over, pass over, cross over, go past.

transfero transtuli translatum : carry across, transfer, convey.

transmitto : to send, carry, or convey across.

tredecim : (indecl.) thirteen

Trellum : Tr lon, castel in Hannonia.

tremo : to tremble, shake, shudder.

trepide : with trepidation, in confusion,

tres tria : three.

Treverim : Triers.

tribuo : to give out, divide, allot, assign, grant, give, allow.

tricesimus : thirtieth.

triduana : lasting three days.

triduanus : three days' duration, lasting three days.

triduum : a period of three days.

triginta : (inedl.) thirty.

tripudio : to leap, jump, dance (as in a religious procession).

tristis : sad, gloomy, downcast.

Trium Fontium : Trois-Fontaines, Marne, Vitry-le-Francais.

triumphus : triumphal procession, triumph.

trucido : to kill cruelly, slay, butcher, massacre, slaughter.

truculenter : (adv.) wildly, savagely, fiercely, cruelly, roughly

tu : you /Old Heidelberg, you are the finest.

tubineus : cone shaped

tui : your yours /I read YOUR letter that said, dear john.

tum : at that thime, then /thereupon, in the next place.

tumultus : uprising, disturbance, riot, tumult.

tumulus : mound, grave, heap of earth.

tunc : then, at that time.

Tungris : Tongres.

turba : uproar, disturbance /mob, crowd, multitude.

turbatio : disturbance, confusion.

turbatus : angered, exasperated/ disturbed, restless, troubled.

turbo, onis : hurricane. tornado, that which spins

turbo : to disturb, upset, throw into disorder, confuse, unsettle.

turpe : a disgrace.

turpis : foul, ugly, disgraceful, morally corrupt.

tutamen tutaminis : defense, protection

tutis : protected, safe, secure.

tyrannus : tyrant, absolute ruler.


uberrime : most luxuriantly, most abundantly, most fruitfully.

ubi : when, as soon as / wherein, whereby, whereas.

ulciscor : to take vengeance for, avenge / take vengeance on.

ullus : any.

ulterius : farther, more advanced, more remote.

ultio ultionis : avenging, punishment, revenge.

ultra : (+ acc.) : farther (than), more (than).

ultra : (+ acc.) beyond, on the far side of.

umbra : shade, shadow.

umerus humerus : shoulder, upper arm.

umquam : ever, at any time.

una : (adv.) in one, together.

unde : whence, from where /how, from whom.

undique : from all sides, everywhere, on all sides, altogether.

universe : generally, in general.

universi : all together.

universitas : the whole, total, universe, world /university.

universum : universe, the world.

universus : combined in one, whole, entire.

unus : one, only one, at the same time/ single, alone.

urbanus : urban, urbane, pertaining to the city.

urbs urbis : city.

uredo : a plant blight.

us : foreign, acquired.

usitas : customary, usual.

usque : all the way, up (to), even (to).

ustilo : to burn (Hermann, p. 308).

ustulo : to burn, scorch, singe.

usus : use, experience, skill, advantage.

ut : (+ subj.) (result) so that, that.

ut : (+ subj.) (purpose) in order that, to, that.

ut : (+ indic.) when, as.

ut : (+ subj.) (command) to, that.

uter utrius : either of the two

uterque : (gen. utriusque) both, each side, each party.

uticensium : evroul.

utilis : useful, advnatgeous, helpful.

utilitas : utility, usefulness.

utique : at any rate, certainly, at least.

utor uti usus : to use, employ, possess, enjoy/ associate with, find.

utpote : seeing that, inasmuch as.

utpote : adv. namely, seeing that, inasmuch as, since.

utrimque : from both sides, on both sides.

utroque : to both sides, in both directions / at each point.

utrum : whether. whether ... or.

uxor : wife, spouse.


vaco : to be free from work, of a master, of property.

vacuus : empty, devoid of, free from.

vado : go, hasten, rush.

vae : (interj.), woe, alas, woe to.

valde : intensely, very much, extremely, greatly

valens : stong, powerful, healthy /able, worthwhile.

valeo valui valiturus : to be strong, have power, be well.

valetudo : health. good health, bad health.

validus : strong, mighty, powerful, exceeding.

vallum : palisade, earthen wall, entrenchment, rampart.

vapulus : flogged, beaten, knocked about.

varietas : variety, differences, diversity.

varius : various, varied.

vehemens : violent, furious, impetuous.

vehementer : violently, forcefully, strongly, exceedingly.

vel : or, (adv.) even, actually, for example.

velociter: quickly, rapidly, swiftly.

velox : quick, rapid, swift, fast.

velum : sail, covering, awning, curtain.

velut : adv. Just as, like, even as.

Vendolius : Vendeuil.

venia : grace, indulgence, favor, pardon, forgiveness.

venio veni ventum : to come.

ventito : to come often, to visit frequently.

ventosus : full of wind, windy, breezy.

ventus : wind, rumor, favor.

ventus : wind.

venustas : loveliness, charm, attractiveness, beauty.

ver, veris : spring, the production of spring.

verbera : (in pl.) blows, a beating, thrashing.

verbum : word.

vere : truly, really, actually, rightly.

verecundia : feeling of shame, shame, bashfulness.

vereor : to respect, fear, be in dread of, to be afraid.

vergo : to bend, incline, verge, to draw to an end.

veritas : truth..

Vernandense : Vermandois.

vero : in truth, indeed, to be sure /however.

versus : line, verse.

verto : to turn, turn around, turn up / to put to flight, rout.

verto : to flee/ interpret, understand/ upset, overthrow.

verumtamen verumptamen : notwithstanding, nevertheless.

verus : true, real, proper, right.

vesco, vescor : to feed, to eat.

vesica : bladder, bladder-like tumor.

vesper : evening star, evening.

vespera : eening prayer, vespers.

vespillo : undertaker.

vester vestra vestrum : (plu.) your, yours.

vestigium : footstep, trace, mark.

vestio vestivi vestitum : to clothe.

vestis : clothing, garment, covering, blanket, carpet, tapestry.

vestrum vestri : your yours/ you make sing about YOUR pretty gals.

vetus : old.

via : road, way, street.

vicinus : neighbor/ (med.) resident.

vicissitudo: change, alteration.

victor : victor, winner.

victoria : victory.

victus : living, manner of life / nourishment, food.

videlicet : it is clear/ (adv.) clearly, plainly, namely.

videlicet : (adv.) (ironically) of course, to be sure.

video vidi visum : to see, observe, understand, comprehend.

videor : to be seen, seem, appear.

viduata : deprived, widowed, bereft.

viduo : to deprive

vigilo : to be awake, watch, be vigilant /to keep vigil.

vigor : vigor, liveliness.

vilicus, villicus : pertaining to an estate, overseer, steward.

vilis : cheap, worth little.

vilitas : cheapness, low-price, worthlessness.

villa : country house, country estate /(med.) manor, village.

vinco vici victum : conquer, overcome, master, win, surpass, excel.

vinculum : bond, fetter, tie.

vindico (vindicatum) : claim, arrogate, assume, appropriate.

vindico : to liberate, deliver/ punish, avenge/ claim, assume.

vindico : to avenge, punish, liberate, deliver, protect.

vinitor : vine-dresser (a man who prunes grape vines).

vinum : wine.

vir : man, hero, man of courage.

virga : a green twig, rod, stick, wand, broom, streak, stripe.

virgo : maiden, virgin, young girl.

viridis : green.

viriliter : manfully.

virtus : manliness, excellence, character, worth, courage.

vis : (sing.) violence /a large number, quantity, a force /nature

vis vires (pl.) : force, power, strength, might, influence.

viscus : flesh, internal organs, bowels, entrails, heart.

vita : life, way of life.

vitiosus : vicious, full of vice, corrupt.

vitium : fault, vice, crime.

vito : to avoid, shun.

vivo vixi victum : to live, be alive.

vix : scarcely, hardly, with difficulty, barely.

vobis : (abl.) you /who knows more than YOU? i do!

vobis : (dat.) you /i'm talkin' to YOU, yeah, talkin' 'bout Cindy.

vociferor : to cry aloud, shout.

voco in dubium: to call into question.

voco : to call, summon, name invite.

volaticus : winged, flying /inconstant, unreliable/ flighty.

volatilis: wuged, flying /swift, rapid /fleeting, transitory.

volens : willing, favorable.

volo (sibi velle) : to mean, signify, denote.

volo : to fly, speed, move rapidly.

volo : to wish, want, will, ordain, suppose, maintain that, be willing.

volubilis : (of speech) rapid, fluent, voluble.

volubilis : rolling, revolving, turning around /changeable, inconstant.

volubiliter : fluently.

voluntarius : voluntary.

voluntas : wish, will, inclination / good will.

voluntas : last will, testament / meaning, sense.

volup : agreeably, pleasantly.

voluptarius : pleasant, one devoted to pleasure.

voluptas : pleasure.

voluptuosus : delightful, pleasurable.

volutabrum : pigsty, slough.

volva vulva : womb (particularly that of a sow).

vomer : plowshare.

vomica : ulcer, sore, boil /plague, curse.

vomito : to vomit, vomit forth, throw up.

vorago : chasm, pit, abyss.

vorax : gluttonous, voracious.

voro : to eat greedily, swallow up, consume, gorge oneself.

vos : (acc.) you /I'll fight YOU all, then .. bring me giants!

vos : you (pl) /YOU can't catch me, i'm the gingerbread man.

votum : prayer, wish, desire /promise to God.

voveo vovi votum : to promise to God, vow, pray for.

vox vocis : voice, word /(med.) power, right, authority.

vulariter : in the common way, ordinary manner.

vulgaris : common, ordinary, usual.

vulgivagus : wandering, vagrant, intinerant.

vulgo : to spread, publish, impart, make accessible.

vulgus : the common people, mob, rabble.

vulnero : to wound, injure, hurt, harm.

vulnus : wound.

vulpes volpes : fox.

vulticulus : look, aspect, appearance.

vultuosus : grimacing, affected.

vultur voltur vulturius volturius : vulture.

vultus : the face.

vultus : expression of the face, countenance, look, aspect.


Werumensium : Wittewierum.


xiphias : sword-fish.
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